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Terms in this set (35)
Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?
Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the
entropy of the universe.
Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic energy?
a food molecule made up of energy-rich macromolecules
What is the change in free energy of a system at chemical equilibrium?
no net change
Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?
The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.
Which of the following shows the correct changes in thermodynamic properties for a chemical reaction in which amino acids are linked to form a protein?
+ delta H ; - delta S ; + delta G
A chemical reaction that has a positive delta G is correctly described as
Which of the following best describes enthalpy (H)?
the heat content of a chemical system
Which of the following is most similar in structure to ATP?
an RNA nucleotide
What term is used to describe the transfer of free energy from catabolic pathways to anabolic pathways?
When chemical, transport, or mechanical work is done by an organism, what happens to the heat generated?
It is lost to the environment.
A number of systems for pumping ions across membranes are powered by ATP. Such ATP-powered pumps are often called ATPases although they don't often hydrolyze ATP unless they are simultaneously transporting ions. Because small increases in calcium ions in the cytosol can trigger a number of different intracellular reactions, cells keep the cytosolic calcium concentration quite low under normal conditions, using ATP-powered calcium pumps. For example, muscle cells also transport calcium from the cytosol into the membranous system called the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). If a resting muscle cell's cytosol has a free calcium ion concentration of 10-7, while the concentration in the SR is 10-2, then how is the ATPase acting?
ATPase activity must be pumping calcium from the cytosol to the SR against the concentration gradient.
What must be the difference (if any) between the structure of ATP and the structure of the precursor of the A nucleotide in RNA?
There is no difference.
How can one increase the rate of a chemical reaction?
Add a catalyst.
Sucrose is a disaccharide, composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. The hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase results in
breaking the bond between glucose and fructose and forming new bonds from the atoms of water.
Reactants capable of interacting to form products in a chemical reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the reaction's
During a laboratory experiment, you discover that an enzyme-catalyzed reaction has a of -20 kcal/mol. If you double the amount of enzyme in the reaction, what will be the for the new reaction?
The active site of an enzyme is the region that
is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme.
According to the induced fit hypothesis of enzyme catalysis, which of the following is correct?
The binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme's active site.
Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome which of the following?
Zinc, an essential trace element for most organisms, is present in the active site of the enzyme carboxypeptidase. The zinc most likely functions as a(n)
cofactor necessary for enzyme activity.
Succinate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of succinate to fumarate. The reaction is inhibited by malonic acid, which resembles succinate but cannot be acted upon by succinate dehydrogenase. Increasing the ratio of succinate to malonic acid reduces the inhibitory effect of malonic acid.
Based on this information, which of the following is correct?
Succinate is the substrate, and fumarate is the product.
Which of the following is likely to lead to an increase in the concentration of ATP in a cell?
an increase in a cell's catabolic activity
When you have a severe fever, what may be a grave consequence if this is not controlled?
change in the folding of enzymes
How does a noncompetitive inhibitor decrease the rate of an enzyme reaction?
by changing the shape of an enzyme
A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X -> Y -> Z -> A . Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.
Substance A functions as
an allosteric inhibitor.
The mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is known as
Which of the following statements describes enzyme cooperativity?
A substrate molecule bound to an active site affects the active site of several subunits
Among enzymes, kinases catalyze phosphorylation, while phosphatases catalyze removal of phosphate(s). A cell's use of these enzymes can therefore function as an on-off switch for various processes. Which of the following is probably involved?
the change in a protein's charge leading to a conformational change
Besides turning enzymes on or off, what other means does a cell use to control enzymatic activity?
compartmentalization of enzymes into defined organelles
Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as __________ is to __________.
If an enzyme solution is saturated with substrate, the most effective way to obtain a faster yield of products is to
add more of the enzyme
If an enzyme is added to a solution where its substrate and product are in equilibrium, what would occur?
Nothing; the reaction would stay at equilibrium.
The mathematical expression for the change in free energy of a system is delta G= delta H -T deltaS . Which of the following is (are) correct?
delta G is the change is free energy
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Bio 1305 Chapter 8
Test Review chapter 8 & 9.
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