A&P: Chapter 3 Review
Anatomy and Physiology chapter Test REVIEW
Terms in this set (51)
Where are proteins bound inside the cell membrane?
Some proteins are embedded in the membrane, with part of the molecule buried in the membrane bilayer, and the rest projecting either inside or outside the cell.
In the mitochondria, folds are to the cristae, as the contained fluid is to __.
If the concentration of sodium in the fluid surrounding cells decreases and other solutes remain the same, what happens to the cell?
The cell will expand until the ionic concentration is the same inside as out (or the membrane fails and the cell "explodes")
What is/are the function(s) of the ER? (Endoplasmic Reticulium)
The Rough ER makes things for the cell to use, or to ship to other cells. The smooth ER takes bad things out of the body
What is it called when white blood cells eat things around them?
Some substances pass through easily, while others cannot penetrate the membrane. An ion or a molecule can diffuse across a cell membrane only by (1) crossing the lipid portion of the membrane or (2) passing through a membrane channel. This is known as what?
Diffusion across a cell membrane.
The most fragile part of the cytoskeleton elements is __.
What is the first part of the cell that is effected when there's a change in pH?
CO2 levels would drop/rise
Vesicles containing enzymes that neutralize toxins are called __.
Chromosomes consist of __ and __.
DNA ; proteins
In which phase does a cell duplicate its chromosomes?
Mitotic (M) phase
The cell is dependent on organic molecules to produce energy because of __.
__ is when a molecule cannot passively diffuse across a membrane; however, it requires a protein "carrier" and energy in the form of ATP to move across the membrane.
__ is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Tubulin is to microtubules as actin is to __.
If an animal cell lacks centrioles, it cannot __.
divide by mitosis
Most of the ATP used for energy is produced in the __.
__ is the hydrostatic pressure produced by a solution in a space divided by a semipermeable membrane due to a differential in the concentrations of solute.
__ is the pressure within the blood capillaries that forces out tissue fluid into the surrounding cells.
Epsom-salt is an example of a __ solution.
What are the two parts to the mitochondria?
mitochondrial matrix (the space inside the inner membrane and between the cristae of a mitochondria where cellular respiration takes place) and cristae (are the internal compartments formed by the inner membrane of a Mitochondrion)
During the phase of cell division, cytoknesis occurs in __.
The functions of a __ serve as a conveyer belts inside the cells. They move vesicles, granules, organelles like mitochondria, and chromosomes via special attachment proteins. They also serve a cytoskeletal role. Structurally, they are linear polymers of tubulin which is a globular protein. These linear polymers are called protofilaments. The tubulin molecules are the bead like structures. They form heterodimers of alpha and beta tubulin. A protofilament is a linear row of tubulin dimers.
Microtubules may work alone, or join with other proteins to form more complex structures called cilia, flagella or centrioles.
Why is messenger RNA (mRNA) important to the cell?
mRNA acts as a carrier molecule from the nucleus to the ribosome.
Functions of the cell membrane include __.
-separation of the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid
-regulation of exchange of materials with the enviroment
-sensitivity to changes in the extracellular fluid
If the cell lacks DNA poymerase, it could not __.
The process of taking in matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole is known as __.
The functional unit of the human body is __.
The functional units of DNA are __.
__ are part of a cells cytoskeleton along with Microfilaments and Microtubules. They are intermediate in size compared to MFs and MTs. They are also more durable and stable than the others. They are mainly used in cellular adhesion and other specialized functions in cells.
The watery medium that surrounds the cell is __.
The cytoskeleton component responsible for movement of chromosomes are the __.
All organic compounds contain __ except __.
carbon ; minerals
Movement of amino acids through the membrane is by __.
Two types of vesicular transport include __ and __.
endocytosis ; exocytosis
__ are chemicals that break down food particles and worn out cell parts.
An alternate term for tumor is __.
The principal cation in our bodies are __ and __.
sodium ; potassium.
When decreasing a cell membranes potential the cell interior __.
__ is the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane without expenditure of energy by the cell.
__ is the movement of a substance across a membrane against its concentration gradient with the help of energy.
In order to maintain cellular homeostasis, an exchange pump ejects __ ions from the cell and imports __ ions.
sodium ; potassium
Histones are highly alkaline proteins found in __ that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
eukaryotic cell nuclei
The death of a cell is called __.
__ is a feltwork of fine filaments in the cytoplasm immediately beneath the free surface of certain epithelial cells; it is thought to have a supportive or cytoskeletal function.
Triplet code is found in the __. It is the normal version of the genetic code in which a sequence of three nucleotides codes for the synthesis of a specific amino acid genetic code - the ordering of nucleotides in the __ that carries the genetic information in living cells.
The components of ribosomes are found in __.
The nucleolus are the creator of ribosomes (Nucleolus is inside of the nucleus.)
Functions of the cell:
In unicellular organisms, cells perform all the basic actions and functions required for living like nutrition, respiration, reproduction etc.
In multicellular organisms, cells divide their tasks on the basis of "DIVISION OF LABOUR" to specialize in certain functions besides respiration etc. like conduction in neurons, excitation in muscles, RBC production by bone marrow etc.
Functions of the plasma membrane:
The plasma membrane surrounds the outside of both Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells. It is made up of a double layer of phospholipids and controls the movement of various substances into and out of the cell, both passively and actively. It also allows cell identification.
Atoms of the same element that differ in mass are __.
A __ is something that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture.