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Nealk VA Psych ch 1 2015
Terms in this set (31)
American Psychological Association (APA)
An organization that represents psychologists in the United States. It was founded in 1892.
The study of psychology based upon the scientific study of observable and measurable behavior only. It was developed by John B. Watson based on the work of Pavlov.
A simple form of training in which one stimulus comes to signal the occurrence of a second.
A testable prediction derived from a theory.
The study of behavior, including thoughts, feelings, actions, and the mental processes behind these.
Personality theories that contend that behavior results from often unconscious psychological factors that interact within an individual.
The process by which phenomena are investigated. Psychologists rely on this process to answer questions. It was not applied to psychology until the late nineteenth century.
A systematic explanation of a phenomenon. It organizes known facts, allows the prediction of new facts, and allows us to exercise a degree of control over said phenomenon.
One of the first academics to challenge structuralism. He developed a functionalist theory. He offered a class in psychology at Harvard in 1875.
A medical doctor who become one of the founding fathers of psychology. He conducted years of research in the physiology lab of the University of Vienna and later established his own practice in 1886. He believed that many nervous ailments were psychological rather than physiological. He developed a psychodynamic theory. His theories were never completely accepted by mainstream psychology, and in recent years his influence on clinical psychology and psychotherapy was declined.
John B. Watson
An American psychologist who developed a view of psychology known was behaviorism. He believed that all mental experiences are the result of physiological changes in response to conditioning. He believed fears could be eliminated by conditioning.
The study of aspects of human growth and change. Most psychologists in this field specialize in a particular area (e.g. child psychology, adolescent psychology, or lifespan psychology).
The assessment and treatment of people with psychological disorders. Psychologists in this field hold a PhD or PsyD in psychology as a result of a 4- to 6- year graduate program, plus a 1-year internship in psychological assessment and psychotherapy and at least 1 more year of supervised practice. May be permitted to prescribe medication with additional training.
The adjustment and treatment of people suffering from everyday problems.
The question of the overall influence of genes vs the influence of experience on human behavior.
The focus on the study of the challenges and changes of adulthood.
A reward for completing a task or engaging in a certain behavior.
School of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing one's full human potential.
School of psychology devoted to the study of mental processes in the broadest sense.
The psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male or female.
Research method involving the systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural settings rather than in the laboratory.
Expectations or biases of the observer that might distort of influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed.
Intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals.
Research technique in which questionnaires r interviews are administered to a selected group of people.
Research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior.
The group subjected to a change in the independent variable.
The group not subjected to a change in the independent variable; used for comparison with the experimental group.
Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or its interpretation.
Participants were deceived into into thinking they were administering an electric shock to another person in order to see if the participants would continue to administer the shocks even after great pain was expressed if given permission by the researcher.
A psychiatrist or psychologist who has received additional specialized training in psychoanalytic theory and practice.
B. F. Skinner
behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons
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