59 terms

Web 115 Chapter 1

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accessibility
website provides accommodations that help individuals overcome visual, auditory, physical, and neurological disabilities.
backbone
high-capacity communication link that carries data gathered from smaller links that interconnect with it.
blog
A journal that is available on the Web; it is a frequently updated page with a chronological list of ideas and links.
client/server
Personal computers joined by a network. It can also describe a relationship between two computer programs—the client and the server. The client requests some type of service from the server, and the server fulfills the request and transmits the results to the client over a network.
clients
Computer workstations used by individuals, such as a personal computer.
cloud computing
on-demand use of software and other computing resources hosted at a remote data center over the internet.
domain name
Name that locates an organization or other entity on the Internet.
Domain Name System (DNS)
Associates IP addresses with the text-based URLs and domain names you type into a web browser address box.
extranet
A private network that securely shares part of an organization's information or operations with external partners such as suppliers, vendors, and customers. They can be used to exchange data, share information exclusively with business partners, and collaborate with other organizations.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A set of rules that allow files to be exchanged between computers on the Internet. Is used simply to move files from one computer to another.
fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
the combination of a host/subdomain, second-level domain, and top-level domain name (such as www.google.com or mail.google.com).
HTML5
Intended to be the successor to HTML4 and will replace XHTML. It incorporates features of both HTML and XHTML, adds new elements, provides new features such as form edits and native video, and is intended to be backward compatible.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
the language used to create web pages. A set of markup symbols or codes placed in a file intended for display on a web browser.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
used to communicate between the client computer and the web server. Set of rules for exchanging files such as text, images, audio, video, and other multimedia on the web. Web browsers and web servers usually use this protocol.
Internet
interconnected network of computer networks that spans the globe
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
A committee of the IETF that provides guidance and broad direction to the IETF. Is responsible for the publication of the RFC document series.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers and Names (ICANN)
A nonprofit organization whose main function is to coordinate the assignment of Internet domain names, IP address numbers, protocol parameters, and protocol port numbers.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
principal body engaged in the development of new Internet protocol standard specifications. It is an open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet.
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
Can be used when you receive email, along with POP3.
intranet
A private network that is contained within an organization or business.
Internet protocol (IP)
Takes over after TCP creates the packets, using IP addressing to send each packet over the Internet via the best path at the particular time. Is a set of rules that controls how data is sent between computers on the internet.
IP address
Unique numeric address for each device connected to the internet. This address consists of a set of four groups of numbers, called octets.
IP Version 4 (IPv4)
Current version, uses 32-bit (binary digit) addressing, resulting in a format of xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx where each xxx is a value from 0 to 255.
IP Version 6 (IPv6)
Will be the next standard IP protocol and will provide a huge increase in the number of possible addresses and many technological advances. Change from 32 bit to 128 bit.
Local Area Network (LAN)
Network that is usually confined to a single building or group of connected buildings.
markup languages
consist of sets of directions that tell the browser software (and other user agents such as mobile phones) how to display and manage a web document. These directions are usually called tags and perform functions such as displaying graphics, formatting text, and referencing hyperlinks.
media
May consist of copper cables, fiber optic cables, or wireless technologies, and are used to connect the clients, servers, peripherals, and networking devices.
microblogging
frequent communicating with a brief message
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
Rules that allow multimedia documents to be exchanged among many different computer systems.
network
Consists of two or more computers connected for the purpose of communicating and sharing resources.
newsreader
Needed to access the information from an RSS feed.
packets
Contain information such as the destination, source, sequence number, and checksum values used to verify the integrity of the data.
podcasts
audio files on the web that take the format of an audio blog, radio show, or interview. Are typically delivered by an RSS feed, but can also be made available by providing the link to a recorded MP3 file on a web page.
Post Office Protocol (POP3)
Used when you receive email. IMAP can also be used.
protocols
Rules that describe how clients and servers communicate with each other over a network.
Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary (RSS)
Used to create newsfeeds from blog postings and other websites. Provides web developers with a method to push new content to interested parties and generate return visits to the site.
Request for Comments (RFC)
A formal document from the IETF that is drafted by a committee and subsequently reviewed by interested parties. Some are informational in nature, while others are meant to become Internet standards.
server
Receives requests from client computers for resources such as files.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Used when you send email to others.
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
Standard for specifying a markup language or tag set. In itself, is not a document language, but a description of how to specify one and create a document type definition.
subdomain
Can be configured to house a separate website located at the same domain.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Ensures the integrity of network communication. It starts by breaking files and messages into individual packets.
top-level domain (TLD)
identifies the rightmost part of the domain name, starting with the final period.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Adopted as the official communication protocol of the Internet. They have different functions that work together to ensure reliable communication over the Internet.
tweet
brief message of 140 characters or less
Uniform Resource Indicator (URI)
Identifies a resource on the internet.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
A type of URI which represents the network location of a resource such as a web page, a graphic file, or an MP3 file. It consists of the protocol, the domain name, and the hierarchical location of the file on the web server.
Web 2.0
The next step in the transition of the Web from isolated static websites to a platform that utilizes technology to provide rich interfaces and social networking opportunities.
Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
A major area of work by the W3C. Has developed recommendations for web content developers, web authoring tool developers, web browser developers, and developers of other user agents to facilitate use of the Web by those with special needs.
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
Accessibility guidelines developed by WAI.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Network that is geographically dispersed and usually uses some form of public or commercial communications network.
wiki
Website that can be updated immediately at any time by visitors, using a simple form on a web page.
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
Organization dedicated to protecting intellectual property rights internationally.
Word Wide Web
developed to fulfill need to easily hyperlink to papers/articles and immediately view items; graphical user interface to information stored on computers running web servers connected to the Internet
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
Takes a proactive role in developing recommendations and prototype technologies related to the web. They address topics such as web architecture, standards for web design, and accessibility.
XHTML
Developed by W3C to reformulate HTML 4.01 as an application of XML. It combines the formatting strengths of HTML 4.01 and the data structure and extensibility strengths of XML.
XML
Developed by W3C as a flexible method to create common information formats and share the format and the information on the Web. It is a text-based syntax designed to describe, deliver, and exchange structured information. It is not intended to replace HTML, but to extend the power of HTML by separating data from presentation.
POP3
Protocol used to access email. It downloads email from a server to a single computer, then deletes it from the server. Most useful protocol when you only want to access email from one computer.
IMAP
Protocol used to access email. Is the better option when you need to check your emails from multiple devices.
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