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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Exocytosis
  2. Peptide Bond
  3. Multipass integral membrane protein
  4. Cell Wall
  5. Reversible covalent modification
  1. a
    This bond occurs when the amino group from one protein joins with the carboxyl group of another, forming a dipeptide.
  2. b This process involves the reversible addition of a small chemical group (e.g phosphate, acetyl) to the side chain of a particular amino acid residue. The most common example of this modification is protein phosphorolation. This process plays a major role in cell functioning.
  3. c
    The process by which substances are exported from a cell.
  4. d
    An integral protein which has a polypeptide change which loops back across the membrane several times.
  5. e
    An extracellular structure in plants which is rigid and surrounds the cell membrane giving it shape and support, like playtex for plants lol! It is primarily composed of cellulose which is a polysaccharide.

5 Multiple choice questions


  1. In simple terms: This is a procedure which enables the sorting of molecules based on size and charge. Using an electric field, molecules (such as DNA) can be made to move through a gel made of agar. The molecules being sorted are dispensed into a well in the gel material. The gel is placed in an electrophoresis chamber, which is then connected to a power source. When the electric current is applied, the larger molecules move more slowly through the gel while the smaller molecules move faster. The different sized molecules form distinct bands on the gel.

  2. These cell junctions are linked very closely and prevent movement of membrane proteins, in the skin for example or in the role mainting the polarity of the cells of the intestine.

  3. A class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine. They were discovered in brain extracts in the 1870s and were named for the mythological Sphinx because of their enigmatic nature. These compounds play important roles in signal transmission and cell recognition. Sphingolipidoses, or disorders of sphingolipid metabolism, have particular impact on neural tissue. A sphingolipid with an R group consisting of a hydrogen atom only is a ceramide. Other common R groups include phosphocholine, yielding a sphingomyelin, and various sugar monomers or dimers, yielding cerebrosides and globosides, respectively. Cerebrosides and globosides are collectively known as glycosphingolipids.

  4. This is the name given to the sequence of amino acid monomer units, or residues of which a compound is composed.

  5. This is the concept that allosteric enzymes have multiple active sites and that binding of a bustrate to one of these active sites changes the conformation of the other sites making ES binding more likely. This gives the enzyme greater sensitivity to change allowing better responsiveness to changes in substrate availability.

5 True/False questions

  1. Chemiosmotic Hypothesis
    The process that couples or links the electron transport chain to ATP synthes. Chemiosmosis is described as one of the mechanisms by which ATP is produced. As the electrons pass through the electron transport chain, energy is released, which is used to establish a proton gradient across a selectively-permeable membrane. The proton gradient drives the protons (hydrogen ions) to move down the gradient, releasing the energy that is in turn captured in the terminal phosphate bonds of ATP.

          

  2. Translation
    The process of synthesizing amino acids based on the genetic DNA code, this involve ribosomes which are a complex of several RNA molecule and up to 50 proteins. The ribosome decodes the anti codon of the tTNA to the codon of the mRNA.

          

  3. Gap junction
    A specialised type of cell junction, an example of which is the smooth muscle of the intestine. The gap's allow for effective transmission of molecules and electrical activity between the cells.

          

  4. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a eukaryotic organelle that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternae within cells. Rough endoplasmic reticula synthesize proteins, while smooth endoplasmic reticula synthesize lipids and steroids, metabolize carbohydrates and steroids (but not lipids), and regulate calcium concentration, drug metabolism, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. Sarcoplasmic reticula solely regulate calcium levels.

          

  5. Euchromatin
    This shows as pale areas in the nucleas under electro magnification. It is a less densly packed form of chromatin; 10% is even less condensed and in this form it can be actively transcribed to produce RNA.