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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Hofstee-Eadie plot
  2. Substrate level phosphorylations
  3. Peroxisomes
  4. Homogenate
  5. Spherical Micelle
  1. a A type of metabolism that results in the formation and creation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by the direct transfer and donation of a phosphoryl (PO3) group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or guanosine diphosphate (GDP) from a phosphorylated reactive intermediate. By convention, the phosphoryl group that is transferred is referred to as a phosphate group.
  2. b
    The most stable structure for an aggregate of single tailed amphipathic liquid molecules e.g detergent in water.
  3. c
    Organelles that are plentiful in liver cells and adipocytes, responsible for breaking down fatty acids and amino acids in to hydrogen peroxide (among other things) via the action of an enzyme known as catalayse.
  4. d Cells are broken up by a homogeniser (blender). This releases the organelles from the cell. The resultant fluid is known as the homogenate, which is then filtered to remove any complete cells and large pieces of debris.
  5. e
    A plot used to obtain a more accurate indication of Km and Vmax. Simplified - v/[S] so the figures used to plot the original hyperbolic rectangle are used dviding the enzyme byt hte substrate. These new figures are then plotted on along the horizontal axis and a best fit line drawn along them. The point at which the line crosses the vertical axis is the Vmax, the point at which it crosses the horizontal axis is the Km.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A)[2] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. It can be synthesized from the pyruvate intermediate of the TCA cycle. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. Its codons are GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG. It is classified as a nonpolar amino acid. L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins.D-Alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics.

  2. This is the mechanism by which the activity of an enzyme is allosterically effected by the later products in the catalytic pathway, thus preventing over production of the product. So the penultimate product of the enzyme also acts as the effector molecule at the enzyme allosteric site.

  3. A small regulatory protein that has been found in almost all tissues (ubiquitously) of eukaryotic organisms. Among other functions, it directs protein recycling.It can be attached to proteins and label them for destruction. This protein tag directs proteins to the proteasome, which is a large protein complex in the cell that degrades and recycles unneeded proteins. This discovery won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 2004.
    The tags can also direct proteins to other locations in the cell, where they control other protein and cell mechanisms.
  4. Where an energy releasing reaction (oxidation) drives and energy requiring reaction (phosphorylation).

  5. The structure formed by two tailed lipids when mixed with water, it consists of a spherical bilayer withthe hydrophobic tails pointing inwards and the hydrophillic heads pointing outwards in close contact with each other and the water.

5 True/False questions

  1. UncouplerAny compound that increases the proton permiability of the inner mitochondrial membrane and hence severes the link between electron transport and ATP synthesis. Two example are thyroxine and brown adipose tissue.


  2. Constitutive releaseThe constant release of small amounts of a substances from the cell membrane.


  3. Ketone bodiesA combination of two acetyl CoA molecules which is used as fuel by the heart and brain.


  4. Oxaloacetate
    Also known as OAA, an important 4C intermediate in the TCA cycle which is formed at the end of one cycle and re-enters at point T1 and combines with the acetyl CoA (the final product of glycolysis) to form a 6C citrate.Without OAA the link reaction cannot connect with the TCA cycle, thus it is vital for glucose oxidation and production of energy.


  5. Plasmodesmata
    Membrane lined gap junctions which cross cell walls in plants.