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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Cell Wall
  2. Exocytosis
  3. Triacylglycerols
  4. Tight junctions
  5. pH Optima
  1. a
    These cell junctions are linked very closely and prevent movement of membrane proteins, in the skin for example or in the role mainting the polarity of the cells of the intestine.
  2. b
    Also known as triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride)an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids.It is the main constituent of vegetable oil and animal fats.
  3. c
    An extracellular structure in plants which is rigid and surrounds the cell membrane giving it shape and support, like playtex for plants lol! It is primarily composed of cellulose which is a polysaccharide.
  4. d
    The process by which substances are exported from a cell.
  5. e
    The optimum pH in which an enzyme is most active, this is normally related to the normal environment of the enzyme, for example Pepsin has a pH optima of around 2, ideal for the acidic environment of the vertebrate stomach.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A)[2] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. It can be synthesized from the pyruvate intermediate of the TCA cycle. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. Its codons are GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG. It is classified as a nonpolar amino acid. L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins.D-Alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics.
  2. The tiny electrically driven motor found in ATP synthase.
  3. The centrally located crank shaft found in ATP synthase thought to be involved in the conversion of an energy gradient in to elastic energy.

  4. The point on a hyperbolic plot/during an enzyme assay at which the maximum rate of substrate to product conversion is reached and the line begins to level out. This is often used to indicate the maximum rate of enzyme activity, however it is only approximate as the plot line never completely levels out.

  5. A multisubunit protein which holds gap junctions together in animal cells.

5 True/False questions

  1. Microfilaments
    These plant organelles have their own DNA like mitochondria. They are normally larger than mitochondria though and they also have a three membrane system.


  2. Phagocytosis/Endocytosis
    The process by which substances or pathogens are taken in to a cell by engulfment by a vesicular structure surrounded by cell membrane.


  3. Metabolic channellingSubstrate channeling is when the intermediary metabolic product of one enzyme is passed directly to another enzyme or active site without being released into solution. When several consecutive enzymes of a metabolic pathway channel substrates between themselves, this is called a metabolon. Channeling can make a metabolic pathway more rapid and efficient than it would be if the enzymes were randomly distributed in the cytosol, or prevent the release of unstable intermediates. It can also protect an intermediate from being consumed by competing reactions catalyzed by other enzymes.


  4. β sheet
    The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins, only somewhat less common than alpha helix. Beta sheets consist of beta strands connected laterally by at least two or three backbone hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. A beta strand (also β strand) is a stretch of polypeptide chain typically 3 to 10 amino acids long with backbone in an almost fully extended conformation. The higher-level association of β sheets has been implicated in formation of the protein aggregates and fibrils observed in many human diseases, notably the amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease.


  5. CofactorsWhere an energy releasing reaction (oxidation) drives and energy requiring reaction (phosphorylation).