32 terms

Unit 3 bio Vocab terms

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Adhesion
The attraction among molecules of different substances.
Cohesion
The attraction among molecules of the same substance.
Polarity
the charactestic of a molecule in which one region is slightly negative, one region is slightly positive.
Concentration
The amount of solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent.
Diffusion
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water (across a membrane)
Selective Permeability
When something will willingly allow some substance the ability to pass through while preventing other substances from passing through.
Endocytosis
Active transport involving large ammounts of material being transported through the cell membrane INTO the cell.
Faciliated Diffusion
A way some molecules can diffuse right across the cell membrand requiring no energy.
Active Transport
Energy-requiring movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.
Hypotonic
A type of solution that has a lower concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
Hypertonic
A type of solution that has a higher concentration of dissolved particles with another solution.
Isotonic
A type of solution that has an equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
Plasmolysis
When the cell membrane and the cell contents of a plant cell shrink away from the cell wall.
Equilibrium
A condition in which reactants and products of a chemical reaction are formed at the same rate.
Monomer
A molecular subunit of a polymer.
Polymer
A large, carbon-based molecule formed by monomers.
Lipids
Nonpolar molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes fats and oils.
Polymerization
The making of polymers from monomers from two processes: 1. Dehydration synthesis 2. Hydrolosis
Dehydration Synthesis
The process when molecules are put together through the removal of water an OH from one monomer and an H from another. Monomers to polymers!
Hydrolysis
The process when molecules are put together through the addition of H2O. An OH from water goes to one monomer and an H from water goes to the other. Polymers to monomers!
Hydrogen Bond
An attraction between a slightly negative atom, often oxygen or nitrogen, and a positively charged H+ ion.
Solution
A mixture of substances that is the same throughout - it is a homogeneous mixture.
Solvent
The substance that is present in the greater amount and that dissolves another substance.
Solute
A substance that dissolves in a solvent.
Acid
A compound that releases a proton - a hydrogen ion (h+) - when it dissolves in water.
Increases the concentration of H+ ions
pH: 1-3
Bases
Compounds that remove H+ ions from a solution.
pH: 8-9
pH
A scale to determine acidity.
Surface Tension
Makes a kind of skin on water, and is produced from cohesion and comes from hydrogen bonds that cause water molecules stick together.
Capilary Action
Where water rises up a narrow tube against gravity, caused by adhesion.
High Specific Heat
The property that water resists changes in temperature (due to hydrogen bonding - lots of heat required to break hydrogen bonds)
Resists changes in temperature. Water must absorb high levels of heat to change temperature (important in cells)
Osmotic Pressure
The force of osmosis.