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MZC1-Ch.1 Cooperative Learning
Terms in this set (53)
lets students give each other immediate feedback
cooperative learning groups
allows students to model to each other
cooperative learning groups
allows students to encourage each other
cooperative learning groups
using this method helps solve management problems by keeping each other on task and dealing with classroom routines
cooperative learning groups
Vygotsky theories support the of what type of learning strategies in which students work together to help one another learn?
Peers are usually operating within each other's ZPD of personal development that often provide models for each other of slightly more advanced thinking.
According to Vygotsky's theories why do cooperative learning groups work well in a classroom?
they can gain insight into one another's reasoning process.
Cooperative learning makes inner speech available to others, so
only instruction and activities that fall within this zone can be learned.
The concept of ZPD implies that
scaffolding, with students taking more and more responsibility for their own learning.
According to a Vygotskian approach to instruction, teaching must emphasize
-interaction around complex tasks
Students can benefit from cooperative learning arrangements among groups of learners with differing levels of ability, this can be accomplished through
-Instruction can be planned to provide practice within the ZPD for individual students or for groups of students.
-Scaffolding provides hints and prompts at different levels.--the adult does not simplify the task, but the role of the learner is simplified "though the graduated interventions of the teacher
-Cooperative learning activities can be planned with groups of children at different levels who can help each other learn
Use Vygotsky's ZPD in organizing classroom activities in the following ways:
When the adult provides the child with pennies, the adult provides a scaffold to help the child move from assisted to unassisted success at the task.
Scaffolding directly relates to the concept of ZPD, for example:
First giving students detailed guides to carrying out experiments, then giving them brief outlines that they might use to structure experiments, and finally asking them to set up experiments entirely on their own.
In a high school laboratory science class, a teacher might provide scaffolding by
racial and ethnic lines
Use cooperative learning, which has been shown to improve relations across
relationships outside of school.
The positive effects of cooperative learning experiences often outlast the teams or groups themselves and may extend to
achievement and social harmony and can increase the participation of children from under-represented groups.
Cooperative learning contributes to both
helping bilingual students make a successful transition to English-only instruction in the upper elementary grades
Cooperative learning programs have been particularly effective both in improving the outcomes of Spanish reading instruction and in
Piaget and Vygotsky, both of whom emphasized that cognitive change takes place only when previous conceptions go through a process of disequilibration in light of new information.
The constructivist revolution has deep roots in the history of education. It draws heavily on the work of
Piaget and Vygotsky
Stressed the social nature of learning, and both suggested the use of mixed-ability learning groups to promote conceptual change.
cooperative learning, project-based learning, and discovery.
Modern constructivist thought draws most heavily on Vygotsky's theories, which have been used to support classroom instructional methods that emphasize
social learning, the zone of proximal development, cognitive apprenticeship, and mediated learning.
Four key principles derived from Vygotsky's ideas have played an important role:
SOCIAL LEARNING-Social Nature of Learning
-Children learn through joint interactions with adults and more capable peers.
-On cooperative projects, children are exposed to their peers' thinking processes; this method not only makes the learning outcome available to all students, but also makes other students' thinking processes available to all.
-successful problem-solvers talk themselves through difficult problems.
-In cooperative groups, children can hear this inner speech out loud and learn how successful problem-solvers are thinking through their approaches.
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
-marks the range of tasks the child might not be able to do alone but can do with the assistance of peers or adults.
-For example, if a child cannot find the median of a set of numbers by herself but could do so with some assistance from her teacher, then finding medians is probably in her zone of proximal development.
-When children are working together, most of them will be performing on the given tasks at slightly higher or lower cognitive levels but still within each child's zone of proximal development.
-emphasizes both the social nature of learning and the zone of proximal development
-refers to the process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer.
-In many occupations, new workers learn their jobs through a process of apprenticeship in which they work closely with experts who provide models, give feedback to less experienced workers, and gradually socialize new workers into the norms and behaviors of the profession. -Student teaching is a form of apprenticeship.
engaging students in complex tasks and helping them through these tasks (as a master electrician would help an apprentice rewire a house) and also by engaging students in heterogeneous, cooperative learning groups in which more advanced students help less advanced peers through complex tasks.
Constructivist theorists suggest that teachers transfer this long-standing and highly effective model of teaching and learning to day-to-day activities in classrooms, by
The process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer.
-emphasis on scaffolding, or mediated learning, is important in modern constructivist thought.
-emphasize the idea that students should be given complex, difficult, realistic tasks and then be given enough help to achieve these tasks (rather than being taught little bits of knowledge that are expected someday to build up to complex tasks). -used to support the classroom use of projects, simulations, explorations in the community, writing for real audiences, and other authentic tasks.
-The term situated learning is used to describe learning that takes place in real-life, authentic tasks.
-This perspective emphasizes learning in depth, rather than learning that is a mile wide and an inch deep.
Constructivist approaches to teaching
emphasize top-down rather than bottom-up instruction.
The term top-down
means that students begin with complex problems to solve and then work out or discover (with your guidance) the basic skills required.
Example of using Top-Down processing approach in teaching
students might be asked to write compositions and only later learn about spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
basic skills are gradually built into more complex skills.
This top-down processing approach is contrasted with the traditional bottom-up strategy, in which
In top-down teaching,
In this process, the tasks students begin with are complex, complete, and authentic, meaning that they are not parts or simplifications of the tasks that students are ultimately expected to perform but are the actual tasks.
The traditional, bottom-up approach to teaching
What approach would use this to teach, the multiplication of two-digit numbers by one-digit numbers (e.g., 4 × 12 = 48) is to teach students a step-by-step procedure to get the right answer. Only after students have mastered this basic skill are they given simple application problems, such as "Sondra saw some pencils that cost 12 cents each. How much money would she need to buy four of them?"
The constructivist, Top-down approach to teaching
What approach would use this to teach math, beginning with problems (often proposed by the students themselves) and then helping students figure out how to do the operations.
In the chapter-opening vignette, Mr. Dunbar used this to help students derive a formula for the volume of a cylinder. Recall how the Master Minds bounced ideas off of each other, tried out and discarded false leads, and ultimately came up with a solution and a way to prove that their solution was correct. None of the students could have solved the problem alone, so the groupwork was helpful in arriving at a solution.
Vygotsky, Bruner, and other constructivists hold to be essential to higher-order learning.
the experience of hearing others' ideas, trying out and receiving immediate feedback on proposed solutions, and arguing about different ways to proceed gave the Master Minds the cognitive scaffolding that
students will more easily discover and comprehend difficult concepts if they can talk with each other about the problems.
Constructivist approaches to teaching typically make extensive use of cooperative learning, on the theory that
Piaget's and Vygotsky's conceptions of cognitive change.
the emphasis on the social nature of learning and the use of groups of peers to model appropriate ways of thinking and expose and challenge each other's misconceptions are key elements of
constructivist approaches that has a long history in education innovation.
Discovery learning is an important component of modern
learn largely on their own through active involvement with concepts and principles, and teachers encourage students to have experiences and conduct experiments that permit them to discover principles for themselves.
In discovery learning, students are encouraged to
an advocate of discovery learning, put it this way: "We teach a subject not to produce little living libraries on that subject, but rather to get a student to think ... for himself, to consider matters as an historian does, to take part in the process of knowledge-getting. Knowing is a process, not a product".
A constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves.
some science museums have a series of cylinders of different sizes and weights, some hollow and some solid. Students are encouraged to race the cylinders down a ramp. By careful experimentation the students can discover the underlying principles that determine the cylinders' speed.
Discovery learning has applications in many subjects. For example,
principles of discovery learning.
Computer simulations can create environments in which students can discover scientific principles. After-school enrichment programs and innovative science programs are particularly likely to be based on
-arouses students' curiosity, motivating them to continue to work until they find answers.
-learn independent problem-solving and critical-thinking skills, because they must analyze and manipulate information.
Discovery learning has several advantages. It
the teacher plays a more active role, giving clues, structuring portions of an activity, or providing outlines.
However, discovery learning can also lead to errors and wasted time. For this reason, guided discovery learning is more common than pure discovery learning. In guided discovery
Students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them.
Who was a proponent of self-regulated learning?
a vision of the ideal student as a self-regulated learner, one who has knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them.
A key concept of constructivist theories of learning is
break complex problems into simpler steps or to test out alternative solutions, they know how and when to skim and how and when to read for deep understanding, and they know how to write to persuade and how to write to inform.
For example, self-regulated learners know how to
learning itself, not only by grades or others' approval, and they are able to stick to a long-term task until it is done.
self-regulated learners are motivated by
effective learners and to have a lifelong motivation to learn.
When students have both effective learning strategies and the motivation and persistence to apply these strategies until a job is done to their satisfaction, then they are likely to be
Programs that teach children self-regulated learning strategies have been found to increase
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
MZC1 CHAP 9 QUESTIONS
MZC1 Chapter 8 (DW)
MZC1 CHAP 3 QUESTIONS
MZC1 Vygotsy's views of cognitive development
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