APES Energy Resources and Consumption Section 1
Terms in this set (25)
first law of thermodynamics
in any physical or chemical change, no detectable amount of energy is created or destroyed, but energy can be changed from one form to another; you cannot get more energy out of something than you put in; in terms of energy quantity, you cannot get something from nothing. This law does not apply to nuclear changes in which energy can be produced from small amounts of matter.
second law of thermodynamics
in any conversion of heat energy to useful work, some of the initial energy is always degraded to lower-quality, more dispersed, less useful energy--usually low-temperature heat that flows into the environment; you cannot break even in terms of energy quantity
solid combustible mixture of organic compounds with 30-98% carbon by weight, mixed with various amounts of water and small amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. It forms in several stages as the remains of plants are subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years
gooey liquid consisting mostly of hydrocarbon compounds and small amounts of compounds containing oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. Extracted from underground accumulations, it is sent to oil refineries where it is converted to heating oil, diesel fuel, gasoline, tar, and other materials.
underground deposits of gases consisting of 50-90% by weight methane gas (CH4) and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds like propane and butane
synthetic gaseous and liquid fuels produced from solid coal or sources other than natural gas or crude oil
capacity to do work by performing mechanical, physical, chemical, or electrical tasks or to cause a heat transfer between two objects at different temperatures
energy that matter has because of its mass and speed or velocity
energy stored in an object because of its position or the position of its parts
total kinetic energy ofa ll randomly moving atoms, ions, or molecules within a given substance excluding the overall motion of the whole object. Heat always flows spontaneously from a warmer sample of matter to a colder sample of matter
fast moving particles (particulate radiation) or waves of energy (electromagnetic radiation)
forms of kinetic energy traveling as electromagnetic waves like radiowaves, TV waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x rays and gamma rays
unit of energy; amount of energy needed to rasie the temp of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsuis
unit of power or rate at which electrical work is done
products of partial or complete decomp of plants and animals; occurs as crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils as a result of exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over millions of years
energy that is dispersed and has little ability to do useful work; example is low temperature heat
energy that is concentrated and has great ability to perform useful work; the energy in electricity, coal, oil, gasoline, sunlight, and nuclei of uranium-235
chemicals obtained by refining (distilling) crude oil. They are used as raw materials in manufacturing most industrial chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, plastics, synthetic fibers, paints, medicines, and many other products
conversion of solid coal to synthetic natural gas
conversion of solid coal to a liquid hydrocarbon fuel such as synthetic gasoline or methanol
deposit of a mixture of clay, sand, water, and varying amounts of tar-like heavy oil known as bitumen. Bitumen can be extracted from oil sand by heating. It is then purified and upgraded to synthetic crude oil.
fine grained rock containing various amounts of kerogen, a solid waxy mixture of hydrocarbon compounds. Heating the rock to high temps converts the kerogen into a vapor that can be condensed to form a slow-flowing heavy oil called shale oil
gooey, black, high-sulfur heavy oil extracted from oil sand and then upgraded to synthetic fuel oil
solid, waxy, mixture of hydrocarbons found in oil shale rock. Heating the rock to high temps causes the kerogen to vaporize. The vapor is condensed, purified, and then sent to a refinery to produce gasoline, heating oil, and other products.
liquefied petroleum gas
mixture of liquefied propane and butane gas removed from natural gas and used as fuel