Terms in this set (45)
What mechanism causes the erythema associated with the inflammatory process?
Leukotrienes and Arachonic Acid
cause vasodilation, which brings more blood to the injured/affected area. The symptoms caused by this vasodilation are redness/erythema and warmth.
Prostaglandins and leukotrienes
Body temperature is controlled through negative feedback loops
TRUE-When the body senses a change out of the norm (as illustrated in the previous slides), it activates mechanisms that oppose that change (vasodilation and sweating with increased temperatures; vasoconstriction and shivering with decreased temperatures). This is known as negative feedback. Positive feedback, on the other hand, senses a change but activates a mechanism that exaggerates the change.
Acute inflammation is the immediate and early response to an injurious agent and occurs in two phases; the vascular phase and the cellular phase.
Chronic inflammation is self-perpetuating and may last for weeks, months, or even years
Erythrocytes play a central role in the physiology of inflammation
Vasoconstriction occurs during the vascular stage of inflammation
Fever is a pathologic response to bacterial and viral infection with and has no positive outcome on illness
the three lines of defense that protect the body against foreign invasion
Physical or surface barriers
Automatic response to cell injury
Neutralizes harmful agents
Removes dead tissue
Non-specific cellular and vascular reaction to tissue
Repels and destroys invader
Cleans up debris to promote healing
Requires blood supply
Signs and symptoms:
local responses of damaged cells consist of
vascular stage and cellular stage
systemic responses of damaged cells consist of
white blood cell response and acute-phase response
last less than 10 days
last longer than 2 weeks
Vasodilation vs. Vasoconstriction
Leukocytes - what type?
Leukocyte activation and Phagocytosis
Prostaglandins and leukotrienes .
affect blood vessels
vascular stage of acute inflammation
Prostaglandins and leukotrienes affect blood vessels.
Arterioles and venules dilate.
momentary vasoconstriction followed rapidly by vasodilation
Capillaries become more permeable.
are types of exudate
Appearance and amount of exudate (blood, fluid) reveals acute or chronic condition
what occurs during the cellular stage?
White blood cells enter the injured tissue:
Destroying infective organisms
Removing damaged cells
Releasing more inflammatory mediators to control further inflammation and healing
White Blood Cells Involved in Inflammation
the injured area
squeeze between cells
follow the inflammatory mediators to the injured area
Leukocytes release many inflammatory mediators at the injured area:
Histamine and serotonin
Cytokines = cyto + kinos
Tumor necrosis factor
other leukyocytes are
Scar tissue forms
non chronic inflammation
Macrophages mass together around foreign bodies
Connective tissue surrounds and isolates the mass
accumulate in the damaged area and keep releasing inflammatory mediators
cell proliferated tissue regeneration
Leads to normal function
Does not lead to normal function
fibrous connective tissue repair
what are the phases of repair
Angiogenesis and ingrowth of granulation tissue
Emigration of fibroblasts and deposition of extracellur matrix
Maturation and reorganization of the fibrous tissue (remodeling)
The transition from granulation to scar tissue shifts in the modification and remodeling of the ECM
cutaneous wound healing
sutured surgical incision
larger wounds which have a greater loss of tissue and contamination
Maturational or Remodeling
phases of healing
Factors affecting healing time
delayed wound healing
complications of wound healing
Poor or excessive scar formation
Separation of tissue margins
bands of scar tissue between body surfaces
extra scar tissue where an injury as already healed