chapter 31

hong xiuquan
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Chinese religious leader who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions to his unique form of Christianity, according to which he himself was the younger brother of Jesus, sent to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace" on earth. believed God had charged him with the establishment of a new order that necessitated the destruction of the qing dynasty. he joined the society of God worshipers and became the leader. got the title "heavenly king" and proclaimed the taiping dynasty.
lost caucasus and central asia to russia, and western frontiers to austria. balkan provinces to greece and serbia. egypt gained autonomy after napoleon's failed campaign(1798) in which egyptian general muhammad ali built a powerful modern army and his army threatened ottomans and made egypt an autonomous province
egyptian general who built a powerful and modern army. his army threatened ottomans and made egypt an autonomous province. his army was modeled on european forces. he drafted peasants to serve as infantry, and he hired french and italian officers to train his troops. launched a program of industrialization, concentrating on cotton textiles and armaments. he invaded syria and anatolia, threatening to control istanbul and topple the ottoman state.
less trade through empire as europeans shifted to the atlantic ocean basin. exported raw materials and imported european manufactured goods. heavily depended on foreign loans and half of the revenues paid to loan interest. foreigners began to administer the debts of the ottoman state(1882)economic difficulties began in 17th centurycapitulationseuropean domination of ottoman economy treaties to avoid the burden of administering justice for communities of foreign merchants. ottoman officials regarded this as intrusions on their sovereignty. they served as tools of economic penetration by european businesspeople who created tax-exempt banks and commercial enterprises in the ottoman empire, and they allowed foreign governments to levy duties on goods sold in ottoman ports -extraterritoriality: europeans exempt from ottoman law within the empire -could operate tax-free, levy their own duties in ottoman ports -deprived empire of desperately needed incomejanissary revoltwhat did the attempt to reform military lead to?mahmud IIreformer who became sultan after revolt. when janissaries resisted, he had them killed and cleared the way for reforms. he built an european-style army, academies, schools, roads, and telegraph. -ensured that his reforms were perceived not as dangerous infidel innovations but as a restoration of the traditional ottoman military. his proposal for a new european-style army brought him into conflict with the janissaries. his program remodeled ottoman institutions along western european lines. main goal was to create a more effective army. his gov't created a system of secondary education for boys to facilitate the transition from mosque shools to newly established scientific, technical, and military academies. he tried to transfer power from traditional elites to the sultan and his cabinet by taxing rural landlords, abolishing the system of military land grants, and undermining the ulama(islamic leadership). established european-style ministries, new railroads, telegraph lines, and inaugurated a postal serviceulamaislamic leadershipsultan selim IIIremodeled his army along the lines of european forces. violence erupted and when his successor tried to revive the new military force, rampaging janissaries killed all male members of the dynasty except his cousin, mahmud II who became sultanjanissariesInfantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to strengthen state. broad legal reforms that were modeled after napoleon's civil code. state reform of education(1846) and free and compulsory primary education(1869). undermined authority of the ulama and enhanced the state authoritylegal and educational reforms of the tanzimat(reorganization) era (1839-1876)religious conservatives critical of attack on islamic law and tradition. legal equality for minorities resented by some and even a few minority leaders. young ottomans wanted more reform(freedom, autonomy, decentralization). high-level bureaucrats wanted more power and checks on the sultan's poweropposition to tanzimat reformscommerical code, penal code, maritime code, new civil code. measures that guaranteed public trials, rights of privacy, and equality before the law for all ottoman subjects. educational reformswhat did reforms promulgate?young ottomansMovement of young intellectuals to institute liberal reforms and build a feeling of national identity in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century. wanted individual freedom, local autonomy, and political decentralizationmuslimswho especially disproved the tanzimat reforms?in 1876, coup staged by bureaucrats who demanded a constitutional gov. new sultan abd al-hamid II proved an autocrat and suspended constitution, dissolved parliament, and punished liberals. reformed army and administration which became the source of the new oppositioncycles of reform and repressionyoung turks party(ottoman society for union and progress)an active body of opposition. -called for universal suffrage, equality, freedom, secularization, women's rights -forced abd al-hamid to restore constitution, dethroned him -nationalistic: favored turkish dominance within empire, led to arab resistance -the empire survived only b/c of distrust among european powers many members were not young nor turkish. promoted reform and made use of recently established newspapers to spread their message.abu al-hamid IISultan of the Ottoman state, installed by reform minded bureaucrats to establish a representative government; soon became a despotic ruler; policies retained Tanzimat Principals. suspended the constitution, dissolved parliament, exiled many liberals, and executed others. wanted to rescue the empire from dismemberment by european powers. continued to develop the army and administration according to tanzimat principles and he oversaw the formation of a police force, educational reforms, economic development, and construction of railroads.mehmed V rashidpuppet sultan of the Young Turkscrimean war(1853-1856)-19th century russia expanded from manchuria, across asia to baltic sea -sought access to mediterranean sea, moved on balkans controlled by ottomans -european coalition supported ottomans against russia in crimea -crushing defeat forced tsars to take radical steps to modernize army and industry -russians couldn't hold their forces against the industrial powers of western europe. russia was defeated and its economy couldn't support the tsars' expansionist ambitions, and it showed the weakness of an agrarian economy based on unfree laborserfdom supported landed nobility(an obstacle to economic development). serfs gained right to land but no political rights and had to pay a redemption tax. emancipation didn't increase agricultural productionemancipation in serfs in 1861 by alexander IIzemstvoslocal assemblies with representatives from all classesalexander IItsar who emancipated the serfs with the intention of creating a mobile labor force for emerging industries and the tsarist gov encouraged industrialization to strengthen the russian empire.count sergei witteminister of finance. created the Witte System -railway construction stimulated other industries; trans-siberian railway -remodeled the state bank, protected infant industries, secured foreign loans -top-down industrialization effective: steel, coal, and oil industries grew. french and belgian capital helped develop the steel and coal industries, and british funds supported the increasing petroleum industry in the caucasuscreation of zemstvos, a weak system(nobles dominated and tsar held veto power), legal reform more successful(juries, independent judges, professional attorneys)political and legal reforms followedtrans-siberian railwayOpened Siberia to large scale settlement, exploitation, and industrializationrapid industrialization declined on working classes. gov outlawed unions and strikes, and workers increasingly became radical. business class supported autocracy, not reformindustrial discontent increasedpeasants were landless and had no political power, frustrated by lack of meaningful reform. antigovernment protest and revolutionary activity increased in 1870s. intelligentsia advocated socialism and anarchism and was recruited in countryside. repression by tsarist authorities(secret police, censorship). russification sparked ethnic nationalism and attacks on jews were toleratedcycles of protest and repressionintelligentsiaadvocated socialism and anarchism, recruited in countrysiderussificationsparked ethnic nationalism, attacks on jews toleratedpogromsanti-jewish riotsland and freedom partypromoted the assassination of prominent officials as a means to pressure the government into political reform. a part of the party, the people's will, resolved to assassinate alexander II who had emancipated the serfs and launched a program of political and social reform.alexander II(reforming tsar) was assassinated by a bomb in 1881. nicholas II was a more oppressive and conservative rulerterrorism emerges as a tool of oppositionnicholas IIweak ruler who championed oppression and police control. to deflect attention from domestic issues and neutralize revolutionary movements, the tsar's gov embarked on expansionist ventures in east asia. russian designs on korea and manchuria clashed with similar japanese intentions, leading to a rivalry that resulted in war.russo-japanese warrussian expansion to east leads to conflict with japan. began with a japanese surprise attack on the russian naval squadron at port arthur and destroyed the russian navyrevolution of 1905triggered by costly russian defeat by japan. -bloody sunday massacre: unarmed workers shot down by gov troops -peasants seized landlords' property; workers formed soviets -tsar forced to accept elected legislature, the duma; did not end conflictbloody sunday massacrecaused an uproar in the empire that culminated in labor unrest, peasant insurrections, student demonstrations, and mutinies in the army and navy. peasants discussed seizing the property of their landlords. urban workers created new councils(soviets) to organize strikes and negotiate with employers and gov authorities. elected delegates from factories and workshops were members of these soviets.sovietsnew councils created by urban workers that consisted of elected delegates from factories and workshopsdumarussia's first parliamentary institution. lacked the power to create or bring down governments, yet it was considered a major concession according to the romanovs. did not end unrestcohongsspecially licensed chinese firms that bought and sold goods at set prices and operated under strict regulations established by the gov.chinese cohong system restricted foreign merchants to one port city. china had much to offer, but little demand for european products. east india company cultivated opium to exchange for chinese goods. about 40,000 chests of opium shipped to china yearly by 1838opium trade(serious threat to qing dynasty by 19th century)opium war(1839-1842)-commissioner lin zexu directed to stop opium trade. british refused; lin confiscated and destroyed 20,000 chests of opium. british retaliated, easily crushed chinese forces, destroyed grand canal.unequal treaties-britain gained right to opium trade, most favored nation status, hong kong, open trade ports, exemptions from chinese laws -similar ones were made to other western countries and japan -by 1900, china lost control of economy, 90 ports to foreign powers curtailed china's sovereignty. broadened the concessions given to foreign powers. they legalized the opium trade, permitted the establishment of christian missions in china, and opened additional treaty portstreaty of nanjing(1842)britain gained right to opium trade, most favored nation status, hong kong, open trade ports, exemptions from chinese laws. governed relations only between britain and china, but france, germany, denmark, the netherlands, spain, belgium, austria-hungary, the US and japan later concluded similar unequal treaties with china.population grew by 50%, land and food more slowly, poverty strained resources. official corruption and drug addiction. four major rebellions and the most dangerous was the taipinginternal turmoil in china in the later 19th centurycalled for end of qing dynasty and resented manchu rule. radical social change(no private property, footbinding, concubinage). popular in se china, seized nanjing(1853), moved on beijingthe taiping(great peace) program proposed by hong xiuquangentry sided with government and regional armies had european weapons. taipings were defeated and the war claimed 20-30 million livestaiping defeat by combined qing and foreign troopshong xiuquanvillage schoolteacher called for destruction of qing dynasty and his program for the radical transformation of chinese society appealed to millions of men and women. although they divided their army into separate divisions of men and women soldiers, the taipings decreed the equality of men and women. taiping regulations prohibited sexual intercourse among their followers, including married couples, but hong and other high leaders maintained large haremsempress dowager cixiformer imperial concubine who established herself as an effective ruler of china during the last 50 years of qing dynasty. with help of european advisors and weapons, these regional armies gradually overcame the taipings. diverted funds intended for the navy to build a magnificent marble boat to grace a lake in the imperial gardens.self-strengthening movementsought to blend chinese cultural traditions with european industrial technology. built shipyards, railroads, weapon industries, steel foundries, academies. not enough industry to make a significant change. powerful empress dowageer cixi opposed changes. -holding to confucian values and seeking to reestablish a stable agrarian society -laid a foundation for industrialization and brought only superficial change to the chinese economy and society. didn't introduce enough industry to bring real military and economic strength to china. encountered obstacles in the imperial gov since empress dowager cixi diverted funds for the navy to build a marble boatspheres of influenceAreas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directlyforeign powers seized chinese tribute states of vietnam, burma, korea, and taiwan. in 1898, they carved china into spheres of economic influence, each a different provincespheres of influence eroded chinese powerhundred-days reforms(1898)-scholars kang youwei and liang qichao published a series of rtreaties reinterpreting confucian thought in a way that justified radical changes in the imperial system. -emperor guangxu inspired to launch wide-range reforms -movement crushed by cixi and supporters. emperor imprisoned and reformers were killedkang youwei and liang qichaoscholars who published a series of rtreaties reinterpreting confucian thought in a way that justified radical changes in the imperial system. did not seek to preserve an agrarian society and its cultural traditions so much as to remake china and turn it into a powerful modern industrial society.emperor guangxuyoung emperor who launched a sweeping program to transform china into a constitutional monarchy, guarantee civil liberties, root out corruption, remodel the educational system, encourage foreign influence in china, modernize military forces, and stimulate economic development. yet, empress dowager cixi imprisoned this emperor in the forbidden city and executed 6 leading reformers. kang and liang fled to japanboxer rebellion(the society of righteous and harmonious fists)local militia attacked foreigners(chinese christians). crushed by european and japanese troops. collapse of qing dynasty in 1912. the boxers wanted to rid china of "foreign devils" and their influences. with the empress dowager's encouragement, the boxers went on a rampage in northern china, killing foreigners and chinese christians and chinese who had ties to foreigners.boxersrebelspuyiappointed to the imperial throne by empress dowager cixi. last emperor of qing dynastycrisis(crop failure, high taxes, rising rice prices) all led to protests and rebellions. tokugawa bakufu tried conservative reforms and led to resistancecrisis and reform in early 19th century in tokugawa japanrequests by british, french, and the united states for the right of entry rebuffed. US commodore perry sailed US fleet to tokyo bay and demanded entry. japan forced to accept unequal treaties with US and other western countriesforeign pressure for japan to reverse long-standing closed door policymizuno tadakunishogun's chief advisor who initiated measures to stem growing social and economic decline and to shore up the tokugawa gov. canceled debts that samurai and daimyo owed to merchants, abolished several merchant guilds, and compelled peasants residing in cities to return to the land and cultivate rice. most of his reforms were ineffective, and provoked strong opposition that drove him from officeUS commodore perrysailed US fleet to tokyo bay, demanded that the shogun open japan to diplomatic and commercial relations and sign a treaty of friendship.widespread opposition to shogun rule(provinces), dissidents rallied around emperor in kyotothe end of tokugawa rule followed these humiliationsMeiji Restoration (1868)after brief civil war, tokugawa armies defeated by dissident militia. the boy emperor mutsuhito(meiji) regained authority. end of almost 7 centuries of military rule in japanmutsuhito(meiji)name means "enlightened rule" who took the reins of power during the _______ restorationfukuzara yukichistudied western constitutions and education. member of the first japanese mission to the US. lauded the constitutional gov and modern educational systems that he found in the US and western europe. argued for equality before the law in japan.ito hirobumihelped build Japanese constitutional government. most important journey was when he traveled to europe to study foreign constitutions and administrative systems, as meiji leaders prepared to create a new gov, and he was inspired by the german constitution in drafting a governing document for japandaimyo and samurai lost status and privileges. districts reorganized to break up old feudal domains. new conscript army ended power of samurai(rebelled in 1877 but lost)abolition of feudal order essential to new gov in japanconverted grain taxes to a fixed money tax which was more reliable income for state. assessed taxes on potential productivity of arable landrevamping tax system in japanconstitutional governmentthe emperor's "gift" to the people in 1889 -emperor remained supreme, limited the rights of the people -less than 5% of adult males could vote -legislature, the diet, was an opportunity for debate and dissentthe dietlegislaturetransportation(railroads, telegraph, steamships), education(universal primary and secondary; competitive universities), industry(privately owned, government controlled arms industry), zaibatsu(powerful financial cliques)remodeling the economy and infrastructure in japanzaibatsupowerful financial cliquesland tax cost peasants 40-50% of crop yield and provided 90% of state revenue. peasant uprisings crushed and little done to alleviate suffering. labor movement crushed in which meiji law treated unions and strikes as criminalcosts of economic development borne by japanese peopleended unequal treaties and defeated china and russiajapan became an industrial power in a single generation