69 terms

Chapter 8 The colonies unite

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Terms in this set (...)

Alliance
A formal agreement among groups or individuals.
Budget
A plan for spending money.
Delegate
A representative.
Fort Necessity
Built by George Washington & other Virginians to defend themselves against French and Indian allies; French & Indian War started here.
George Washington
First President of the United States and leader of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.
King George III
King of Britain during the French & Indian War; tried to end fighting with Indians through Proclamation of 1763
Ohio Valley
A region claimed by both Britain and France in the early 1700s; stretched along the Ohio River from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River.
Parliament
The lawmaking branch of the British government.
Proclamation
A public announcement.
Boston
The capital of Massachusetts, located in the eastern part of the state; an important city during the American Revolution.
Boycott
To refuse to buy or use goods or services.
Congress
A formal meeting of government representatives.
Crispus Attucks
African American sailor; 1st person killed during the Boston Massacre.
Imperial policy
Laws and orders issued by the British government.
John Hancock
President of the Congress; 1st person to sign Constitution; wrote his name large enough for King George III to see; name means "a person's signature";
Patrick Henry
Virginia leader; great speaker; member of Virginia House of Burgess; spoke out against British policies; said Parliament did not represent the colonies
Paul Revere
Massachusetts colonist; silversmith; warned the Patriots that the British were marching toward Concord.
Protest
To work against, or object to, a certain policy.
Repeal
To cancel, or undo, a law.
Representation
To have someone speak or act for you.
Samuel Adams
Revolutionary leader; set up Boston Committee of Correspondence; helped form the Sons of Liberty.
Treason
The act of working against one's own government.
Committees of Correspondence
Committee started by colonists to spread information after the Stamp Act enacted;1764 Bostonians formed a committee in response to Sugar Act; New York formed one too.
Monopoly
The complete control of a good or service in an area by either a person or a group
Coerced
Forced to obey
Blockade
To stop ships from entering or leaving the harbor with warships
Quarter
To provide or pay for housing
Petition
A signed request made to an official person or organization
Minutemen
A member of the Massachusetts colony militia who could quickly be ready to fight the British (in a minute)
Revolution
A sudden, great change, such as the overthrow of an established government.
Commander in chief
The leader of all the military forces of a nation
Earthworks
Walls made of earth and stone
Olive branch
An ancient symbol of peace
Independence
The freedom to govern themselves
Resolution
A formal statement of the feelings of a group of people about an important topic
Declaration
An official statement
Preamble
The first part or an introduction
Grievances
Complaints
Benjamin Franklin
From Pennsylvania; proposed Albany Plan of Union; suggested colonists join together to fight Indians and French; delegate to Constitutional Convention
Albany
1754, where colonial leaders met to discuss French & Indian War; capital of New York; located in the eastern part of the state.
French & Indian War
Started at Fort Necessity in 1754; French & Indians against the British and colonists; war spread to Europe; ended 1763 with signing of Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris
1763; British got most of Canada, all French lands east of Mississippi River and Spanish Florida; French lost nearly everything in North America
William Pitt
British leader; fought in French & Indian War; sent to help colonists win the war after Braddock was killed
General Edward Braddock
British commander in French & Indian War; fought war like he was trained to do in open fields; killed early in Fr. & Ind. War.
Pontiac
Ottawa Indian chief; 1763 united all the tribes along the Mississippi River to take control of British forts
Proclamation of 1763
Proclaimed that all lands west of Appalachians belonged to the Indians and all whites there had to leave; colonists ignored the Proclamation; upset the colonists because they thought Fr. & Ind. War was to allow them to settle the western frontier not be banned from it
Sugar Act
1764; British imposed a tax to raise money for Britain on sugar and molasses brought in from the West Indies
Stamp Act
March 1765; British tax on paper documents in the colonies; newspapers, legal documents playing cards needed a special stamp to show that the tax was paid
George Grenville
British leader; said Parliament needed more money to pay for the war; thought colonists should pay more because the war was for them
Sons of Liberty
Captured British tax collectors - tarred and feathered them; spoke out against British
Daughters of Liberty
Women who resisted British by spinning & weaving cloth to sell so others didn't have to buy British cloth
Townshend Acts
1767; tax on imports to the colonies like glass, tea, paint & paper; sales declined so it was repealed in 1770
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770; soldiers opened fire on angry name-calling colonists; 5 died
Boston Tea Party
Dec. 16, 1773; 150 sons of Liberty members dressed as Mohawk Indians threw tea overboard to protest Tea Act
Tea Act
1773; Parliament law that gave Britain's East India Co. a monopoly on tea being sold to colonists
Coercive Acts
March 1774; meant as punishment for Boston Tea Party; closed port of Boston until colonists paid for tea ruined; stopped Massachusetts from making any more laws; banned town meetings
Edmund Burke
British leader; didn't agree with Coercive Acts.
First Continental Congress
September 1774; Philadelphia; colonist met to discuss how to respond to Britain & their laws and taxes; petition to Britain that colonists entitled to life, liberty, right to assemble and trial by jury
Lexington
April 1775 place where Sons of Liberty were meeting; British marched into Lexington & killed 8 Minutemen; beginning of Revolutionary War
Concord
Place where Gage thought Minutemen stored weapons; British marched here after Lexington; beginning of Revolutionary War
"the shot heard round the world."
Poet Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote this about Lexington & Concord fighting
Second Continental Congress
May 10, 1775; Philadelphia; colonies gathered to decide what to do in response to British; decided to prepare for war, form an army, & print money; sent 2nd petition to King George III = olive branch; approved Declaration of Independence; formed new government
Battle of Bunker Hill
Near Boston; June 17, 1775; actually took place on Breed's Hill; British won but colonists fought bravely
General Thomas Gage
British; Parliament put him in charge of Boston; directed Bunker Hill battle
Phillis Wheatley
African slave who wrote patriotic poetry; first African american woman in colonies to have work published
Thomas Paine
Wrote Common Sense; wanted colonists to rule themselves; believed differences with Britain could not be settled
Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson wrote it; longest part - grievances; 1st part - preamble, then Declaration of beliefs, then grievances; July 4, 1776, Congress accepted final wording
John Dickinson
Pennsylvania head of committee to write plan of government; presented final report to congress
Articles of Confederation
Country's first plan of government; read on July 12, 1776, approved on November 15, 1777; each state elect leaders for state legislature; these leaders chose representatives to national Congress of the Confederation