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49 terms

lab packet 2

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cell structure
cells are the structural and functional units of multicellular organisms. A basic knowledge of cell structure and functions is imperative in order to understand how the organs and organ systems in a living body carry out life sustaining activities
plasma membrane
eukaryotic cell- composed of a double phospholipid bilayer. it has a hydrophilic head and the tail is hydrophobic. its function is for the diffusion of the cell.
nucleus
one of the largest organelles in the cell. It contains DNA and directs activity
chromosomes
dense structures composed of tightly, coiled DNA strands. They take part in cell division. Descrete structure that forms when chromatin condenses.
nucleolus
contains RNA and manufactures chromosomes
nuclear membrane
nuclear envelope that has a double membrane that is dotted with nuclear pores that allow the passage of various substances such as ions, proteins, and RNA
cytoplasm
gell like matrix outside of the nucleus that all the organelles are suspended in. Made up of cytosol
cell organelles
are surrounded by a phospholipid membrane and have internal compartments with chemical environments that may be different than the surrounding cytosol.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
dotted with ribosomes. It synthesizes protein and dispatches throughout cell. It is a highly folded membrane structure that encloses a network of fluid filled cauriots?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
highly folded membrane that synthesizeslipids and steroids. Has a slight detoxification role.
mitochondria
breaks down organic moleculesand release energy (
ATP)
golgi apparatus
series of flattened, stacked sacks. packages proteins and prepares transport
transport vesicles
what carry the protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the golgi apparatus
secretory vesicles
repackages protein and transports to the plasma membrane
lysosomes
filled with digestive enzymes and is responsible for digesting away old worn out organelles and destroying potentially harmful bacteria and viruses
peroxisomes
neutralizes toxins produced by cellular metabolism and breaks down outside toxins and fatty acids. its byproduct is hydrogen peroxide and converts to oxygen and water by the means of an enzme catalase
ribosomes
without a membrane. produces protein for cellular metabolism
centriole
without a membrane. paired cyndrical structures arranged at right angles and only is purpose during mitosis.
cytoskeleton
provides strentgh and flexibility to the cell and support for the other various organelles.
microvilli
increases surface area along the cell membrane of a cell that absorbs substances
cilia
moves substances over the cell's surface
flagella
used for cell locomotion; in humans, the only cell with a flagella is a sperm cell
cell theory
- cells are the basic unit of life
-all cells come from prexisting cells
-cells are the building blocks of organisms
-each individual cell can maintain its own homeostasis
-cells relies on other cells for survival
-cellular activity is highly complicated
HDL
good cholesterol
LDL
high amounts are associated with bad cholesterol
usage of methylene blue
used to stain slides to enable the viewer to see various organelles
hydrogen peroxide as an antiseptic
when the peroxide contacts there is a catalase that is released from damaged cells, the enzyme causes the formation of oxygen gas bubbles. the bubbling action helps dislodge debris that enters a wound and could lead to infection.
the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
eukaryotic cells are complex cells that have a well defined nuclei and specialized organelles that are found in the body.
prokaryotic cells are found in plants
stages of mitosis
mitosis is the division of the cell's nuclear material
-interphase
-prophase
-metaphase
-anaphase
-telophase
-cytokinesis
interphase
g1 phase- cell prepares for DNA replication and division by replicating its centrioles and organelles
s phase- DNA replicates itself
g2 phase- enzymes and other proteins that are needed for cell division are produced
prophase
early prophase- the chromatin in the nucleus becomes highly coiled and condensed forming chromosomes
late prophase- the centrioles continue to separate by migrating to opposite ends of the cell
metaphase
chromosomes begin to line up ont the equator end to form the metaphase plate. the mitotic spindle is completely formed
anaphase
the chromatid pairs separate and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell as the mitotic spindles shorten. The duplicated chromosomes of the original cell become separated into two individual sets of chromosomes.
telophase
a nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes and a nucleoulus develops in each new nucleous
cytokenisis
a ring of microfilaments contracts along the cell's equator, effectively squezzing the cytoplasm into two portions. As the contraction continues, the two cytoplasmic portions are pinched apart forming two identical cells
the relationship between mitosis and cancer
mitosis occurs most extensively in tissues that are rapidly growing and deveolping cancer refers to a large number of disorders in which mutations disrupt the cells normal controls during cell reproduction, producing increasingly abnormal cells, with unrestricted growth due to rapid cell mitosis
membrane transport
refers to the processes by which cells exchange molecules and ions with its fluid environment. can occur bothe by active transport or passive transport
passive transport
in which the cell does not use its energy
active process
in which the cell uses cellular energry
simple diffusion
a passive process that involves molecular movement along a concentration gradient
concentration gradient
an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
the effect of heat on diffusion
molecular motion speeds up and makes the process of diffusion go faster
osmosis
simple process that is the diffusion of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane; water molecules move from a lower solute concentration towards a higher solute concentration across a semipermeable membrane
water intoxification
excessive water consumption that can be fatal because kidneys may not be able to clear the water at desired rates and already hypertonic cells now become diluted. cells in the brain are hypertonic and will swell and death can occur
hypertonic
a solution with a higher total solute concentration. cells will shrivel if exposed to a hypotonic fluid such as distilled water
hypotonic
a solution with a lower total solute concentration. cells would swell and burst because water would move in from the extracellular environment.
isotinic
the solute concentration of the cytoplasm is about the same as the concentration of extracellular fluids
facillitated diffusion
a special type of diffusion by which molecules such as those of glucose or ions move into the cell by means of protein channels in the plasma membrane
active processes
active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis are used to take in substances from intercellular fluid or to give out substances from the intracellular fluid