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Physical Anthropology Chapter 5
Terms in this set (31)
The relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches.
Similarities between organisms based strictly on common function with no assumed common evolutionary descent.
Referring to characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups (lineages) branching subsequent to the time the character first appeared.
biological species concept
A depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding, but reproductively isolated from other such groups.
The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates.
An approach to classification that attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters (those considered derived characters).
A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis. It is based solely on interpretation of shared derived characters. No time component is indicated, and ancestor-descendant relationships are not implied.
In biology, the ordering of organisms into categories, such as orders, families, and genera, to show evolutionary relationships.
The movement of continents on sliding plates of the earth's surface. As a result, the positions of large landmasses have shifted dramatically during the earth's history.
Referring to characters that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus are diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages.
The positions of species within their physical and biological environments, together making up the ecosystem. A species' ecological niche is defined by such components as diet, terrain, vegetation, type of predators, relationships with other species, and activity patterns, and each niche is unique to a given species.
(endo, meaning "within" or "internal") Able to maintain internal body temperature through the production of energy by means of metabolic processes within cells; characteristic of mammals, birds, and perhaps some dinosaurs.
Categories of the geological time scale; subdivisions of periods. In the Cenozoic, epochs include the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene (from the Tertiary) and the Pleistocene and Holocene (from the Quaternary).
A traditional approach to classification (and evolutionary interpretation) in which presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters.
A group of closely related species.
geological time scale
The organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs; commonly used by geologists and paleoanthropologists.
Having different kinds of teeth; characteristic of mammals, whose teeth consist of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor.
(homo, meaning "same," and plasy, meaning "growth") The separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms.
Between species; refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species.
Within species; refers to variation seen within the same species.
Multicellular animals; a major division of the animal kingdom.
Species defined from fossil evidence, often covering a long time span.
A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by phylogenetic systematics. It contains a time component and implies ancestor-descendant relationships.
A type (subclass) of mammal. During the Cenozoic, placentals became the most widespread and numerous mammals and today are represented by upwards of 20 orders, including the primates.
The concept that evolutionary change proceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change.
Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species. For example, humans are slightly sexually dimorphic for body size, with males being taller, on average, than females of the same population.
Relating to specific character states shared in common between two forms and considered the most useful for making evolutionary interpretations.
The process where a new species evolves from a prior species. Speciation is the most basic process in macroevolution.
Animals with bony backbones; includes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Giving birth to live young.
This set is often in folders with...
Physical Anthropology - Chapter 2
Physical Anthropolgy - Chapter 3
Physical Anthropology - Chapter 4
Biological Anthropology Chapters 8-14
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