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EMS chapter 25 bleeding
Terms in this set (105)
1.If applying a dressing to control the bleeding of a patient's arm, the EMT should ________.::
D. All of these answers are correct.
2.Which organ or organ system has the greatest tolerance for lack of perfusion (shock)?::
3.If direct pressure fails to immediately stop severe bleeding from an extremity, you should apply::
a tourniquet proximal to the injury.
4.A 43-year-old man is experiencing a severe nosebleed. His blood pressure is 190/110 mm Hg and his heart rate is 90 beats/min and bounding. Preferred treatment for this patient includes::
pinching the patient's nostrils and having him lean forward.
5.What mechanism(s) does the body use to control bleeding?::
D. All of these answers are correct.
6.Which portion of the blood carries oxygen to and wastes away from body tissues?::
Red blood cells
7.Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' oxygen, nutritional, and waste-removal needs is termed _______.::
8.Which section of the heart receives deoxygenated blood?::
9.The severity of bleeding should be based on all of the following findings, EXCEPT::
systolic blood pressure.
10.In older patients, the first indicator of nontraumatic internal bleeding may be::
weakness or dizziness.
11.Hypovolemic shock occurs when::
the body cannot compensate for rapid blood loss.
12.Which of the following statements regarding hemophilia is correct?::
Patients with hemophilia may bleed spontaneously.
13.Internal bleeding into a fractured extremity is MOST often controlled by::
splinting the extremity.
14.Following blunt trauma to the abdomen, a 21-year-old female complains of diffuse abdominal pain and pain to the left shoulder. Your assessment reveals that her abdomen is distended and tender to palpation. On the basis of these findings, you should be MOST suspicious of injury to the::
15.Which of the following findings would be the MOST significant when assessing a patient with possible internal bleeding?::
The patient takes rivaroxaban (Xeralto).
16.Which of the following splinting devices would be MOST appropriate to use for a patient who has an open fracture of the forearm with external bleeding?::
17.A 67-year-old male presents with weakness, dizziness, and melena that began approximately 2 days ago. He denies a history of trauma. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his pulse is 120 beats/min and thready. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient is experiencing::
18.Significant vital sign changes will occur if the typical adult acutely loses more than ______ of his or her total blood volume.::
19.Whether you are using a commercial device or a stick and triangular bandage as a tourniquet, it is important to remember that::
the tourniquet should only be removed at the hospital because bleeding may return if the tourniquet is released.
20.A young male was shot in the abdomen by an unknown type of gun. He is semiconscious, has shallow breathing, and is bleeding externally from the wound. As you control the external bleeding, your partner should::
assist the patient's ventilations.
21.The function of the blood is to _______ all of the body's cells and tissues::
Deliver nutrients to
22.The cardiovascular system consists of::
D. All of the above
23.Blood leaves each chamber of a normal heart through a::
One way valve
24.Blood enters the right atrium from the::
25.Blood enters the left atrium from the::
26.The only arteries of the body that carry deoxygenated blood are the::
27.The _______ is the thickest chamber of the heart::
28.The _______ links the arteries and the venules.::
29.At the arterial end of the capillaries, the muscles dilate and constrict in response to conditions such as::
D. All the of above
30.Blood contains all of the following except::
31.________ is the circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells current need for oxygen nutrients and waste removal::
32.The _______ only requires a minimal blood supply when at rest::
33.The term _______ means constantly adapting to changing conditions::
34._______ is inadequate tissue perfusion::
35.The brain and spinal cord usually cannot go for more than _______ minutes without perfusion or the nerve cells will be permanently damaged::
36.An organ or tissue that is considerably _______ is much better able to resist damage from hypoperfusion::
37.The body will not tolerate an acute blood loss of greater than _______ of blood volume::
38.If the typical adult loses more than 1L of blood, significant changes in vital signs, such as _____ will occur::
Increased respiratory rate
39._______ shock is a condition in which low blood volume results in inadequate perfusion or even death::
40.You should consider bleeding to be serious if all of the following conditions are present except::
There is no mechanism of injury
41.Significant blood loss demands your immediate attention as soon as the _______ has been managed::
42.The process of blood clotting and plugging the hole is called::
43.Even though the body is very efficient at controlling bleeding on it's own it may fail in situations such as::
D. All of the above
44.A lack of one or more of the blood clotting factors is called::
45.You respond to a 25-year-old man who has cut his arm with a circular saw. The bleeding appears to be a bright red and spurting. The patient is alert and oriented and converses with you freely. He appears to be stable at this point. What is your first step of controlling his bleeding?::
46.When applying a bandage to hold a dressing in place, stretch the bandage tight enough to control the bleeding but not so tight as to decrease _____ to the extremity.::
47.If bleeding continues after applying a pressure dressing should do all the following except::
Remove the dressing apply another sterile dressing
48.When using an air splint to control bleeding in the fractured extremity you should reassess the::
Circulation in the injured extremity
49.When treating a patient with signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock and no outward signs of bleeding always consider the possibility of bleeding into the::
50.Nontraumatic internal bleeding may be caused by an::
D. All of the above
51.The most common symptom of internal bleeding is::
acute abdominal pain.
52.Signs and symptoms of internal bleeding in both trauma and medical patients include::
D. all of the above
53.The first sign of hypovolemic shock is change in::
54.You and your partner respond to a patient who has had his hand nearly severed by a drill press. As you approach, you note that the patient is pale and there appears to be a lot of blood on the floor. The wound continues to bleed copiously. After applying a tourniquet, you write ______ and _______ on a piece of adhesive tape and apply it to the patient's forehead.::
the letters "TK"; the exact time applied
55.You and your partner respond to a patient who has had his hand nearly severed by a drill press. As you approach, you note that the patient is pale and there appears to be a lot of blood on the floor. The wound continues to bleed copiously. In the above call, when applying the tourniquet you know you must be sure to::
not loosen the tourniquet after you have applied it.
56.You are called to a playground for an 8-year-old girl who has an uncontrolled nosebleed. The child is crying and will not to talk to you. The babysitter and other children present did not witness any trauma, but there is a bump on the temporal portion of the girl's head. The babysitter does state that the girl has had a cold for several days but can give you no further information on her medical history. What could be the possible cause(s) of the bleeding?::
D. All of the above
57.You respond to a 33-year-old man who was hit in the ear by a line drive during a softball game. He is complaining of a severe headache, ringing in the ears, and dizziness. He has blood draining from his ear. Why would you not apply pressure to control bleeding?::
It could collect within the head and increase the pressure on the brain.
58.You are dispatched to a store in the downtown mall for an arm injury. When you arrive, you are directed to a small stock room where you find a teenaged girl holding a blood-soaked cloth tightly onto her left forearm. You notice blood droplets high up the wall and on the floor several feet from where she is sitting. "I was opening a shipment with a box-cutter," she says, her skin noticeable pale. "And it slipped and cut my arm." What type of bleeding should you anticipate?::
She most likely has arterial bleed.
59.Perfusion is MOST accurately defined as::
circulation of blood within an organ with sufficient amounts of oxygen.
60.A man involved in a motorcycle crash has multiple abrasions and lacerations. Which of the following injuries has the HIGHEST treatment priority?::
1" laceration to the thigh with spurting, bright red blood
61.Which of the following sets of vital signs is LEAST indicative of internal bleeding?::
BP, 140/90 mm Hg; pulse rate, 58 beats/min; respirations, 8 breaths/min
62.When caring for a patient with internal bleeding, the EMT must first::
take appropriate standard precautions.
63.The quickest and MOST effective way to control external bleeding from an extremity is::
direct pressure and elevation.
64.When applying a tourniquet to an amputated arm, the EMT should::
avoid applying the tourniquet over a joint.
65.A 70-year-old man is experiencing a severe nosebleed. When you arrive, you find him leaning over a basin, which contains an impressive amount of blood. He has a history of coronary artery disease, diabetes, and migraine headaches. His BP is 180/100 and his heart rate is 100 beats/min. Which of the following is the MOST likely contributing factor to his nosebleed?::
His blood pressure
66.When caring for a patient with severe epistaxis, the MOST effective way to prevent aspiration of blood is to::
tilt the patient's head forward while he or she is leaning forward.
67.Controlling internal bleeding requires::
surgery in a hospital.
68.A 22-year-old male was kicked in the abdomen multiple times during an attack by a gang. He is conscious but restless and his pulse is rapid. Your assessment reveals a large area of bruising to the right upper quadrant of his abdomen. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes::
preparing for immediate transport.
69.What is the approximate blood volume of a 75-kg adult?::
70.An organ or tissue may be better able to resist damage from hypoperfusion if the::
body's temperature is considerably less than 98.6°F (37.0°C).
71.Which of the following organs can tolerate inadequate perfusion for up to 2 hours?::
72.Which of the following statements regarding the clotting of blood is correct?::
A person taking aspirin will experience slower blood clotting.
73.A fractured femur can result in the loss of ______ or more of blood into the soft tissues of the thigh.::
74.Perfusion is MOST accurately defined as the::
circulation of blood within an organ in adequate amounts to meet the body's metabolic needs.
75.In which of the following situations would external bleeding be the MOST difficult to control?::
femoral artery laceration and a blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg
76.You arrive at the home of a 50-year-old female with severe epistaxis. As you are treating her, it is MOST important to recall that::
the patient is at risk for vomiting and aspiration.
77.Which of the following body systems or components is the LEAST critical for supplying and maintaining adequate blood flow to the body?::
the filtering of blood cells in the spleen
78.Gastrointestinal bleeding should be suspected if a patient presents with::
79.When using a stick and square knot as a tourniquet to control severe bleeding from an amputated arm, the EMT should::
stop twisting the stick when the bleeding stops.
80.A 39-year-old male sustained a large laceration to his leg during an accident with a chainsaw and is experiencing signs and symptoms of shock. You should::
follow appropriate standard precautions.
81.Most cases of external bleeding from an extremity can be controlled by::
applying local direct pressure.
82.A 39-year-old male accidentally cut his wrist while sharpening his hunting knife. He is conscious and alert with adequate breathing, but is bleeding significantly from the wound. You should::
control the bleeding with direct pressure.
83.As red blood cells begin to clump together to form a clot, __________ reinforces the clumped red blood cells.::
84.Early signs and symptoms of intra-abdominal bleeding include::
pain and distention.
85.An infant with a total blood volume of 800 mL would start showing signs of shock when as little as ______ of blood is lost.::
86.Bleeding from the nose following head trauma::
is a sign of a skull fracture and should not be stopped.
87.The systemic veins function by::
returning deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
88.In nontrauma patients, an early indicator of internal bleeding is::
dizziness upon standing.
89.The ability of a person's cardiovascular system to compensate for blood loss is MOST related to::
how rapidly he or she bleeds.
90.Blood stasis, changes in the vessel wall, and certain medications affect the::
ability of the blood to effectively clot.
91.During transport of a 40-year-old female with acute abdominal pain, you note that she has stopped talking to you and has become extremely diaphoretic. You should::
repeat the primary assessment.
92.Hypoperfusion is another name for::
93.The smaller vessels that carry blood away from the heart and connect the arteries to the capillaries are called the::
94.Which of the following organs/body systems cannot tolerate lack of blood flow for more than a few minutes?::
The heart and brain
95.Which part of the cardiovascular system is considered "a container"?::
The blood vessels
96.Which of the following is a term for vomited blood?::
97.When encountering a suspected bleeding emergency, the most pertinent finding during the SAMPLE history phase of assessment would be that ________.::
the patient states that she takes blood-thinner medications
98.Which of the following conditions might an EMT suspect as a possible cause for bleeding from the nose and mouth?::
D.All of these answers are correct.
99.What is the approximate blood volume of an 80-kg adult male?::
100.After applying a pressure dressing to a laceration on a patient's arm, you notice that blood is slowly beginning to saturate it. You should::
place additional dressings over the wound.
101.A 48-year-old male has a suspected open-book pelvic fracture. He is conscious but restless, and his skin is pale and diaphoretic. His respirations are 22 breaths/min and his pulse rate is 120 beats/min. There is no external bleeding noted. The EMT should::
apply a compression device around his pelvis.
102.External bleeding from a vein is relatively easy to control because::
veins are under a lower pressure.
103.The pneumatic antishock garment (PASG) would MOST likely be effective in::
controlling severe external bleeding associated with pelvic fractures.
104.If used, the EMT-B should inflate the PASG::
until the Velcro begins to crackle.
105.A 39-year-old male sustained a large laceration to his leg during an accident with a chainsaw and is experiencing signs and symptoms of shock. You should::
take appropriate BSI precautions.
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