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AP Biology: Unit 8, Chapter 53, 54, & 55


Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area


Number of individuals per unit area/volume


Pattern of spacing among individuals


Type of area an organism lives in


Role in an ecosystem

type 1

Survivorship Curve: Most live long, K-selected

type 2

Survivorship Curve: Constant death-rate

type 3

Survivorship Curve: Most die young, r-selected opportunists

biotic potential

Maximum population growth rate under ideal conditions

limiting factors

Factors negatively affecting population growth rate

exponential growth

J-shaped population growth, unlimited

logistic growth

S-shaped population growth, limited

carrying capacity

Maximum individuals a population can be supported on by a habitat

competitive exclusion principle

No two species can occupy the same niche; one out-competes the other, other is eliminated

resource partitioning

Species seemingly coexist in same area, but occupy slightly different niches

character displacement

Selection of adaptations that reduce competition

keystone species

Important regulating effect on community, maintains diversity


Species interaction











cryptic coloration


aposematic coloration

Warning coloration

batesian mimicry

Harmless mimics harmful

mullerian mimicry

Warning colors, both harmful

ecological succession

Predictable change in composition of species in community over time

pioneer species

Opportunistic r-selected


Interaction of populations

energy flow

90% energy is lost through trophic levels

primary producers


primary consumers


secondary consumers

Consume herbivores

tertiary consumers

Consume most other animals


Organisms that consume organic litter debris and dung


Organisms that break down waste/dead organisms

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