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37 terms

Populations/Communities/Ecosystems

AP Biology: Unit 8, Chapter 53, 54, & 55
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population
Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area
density
Number of individuals per unit area/volume
dispersion
Pattern of spacing among individuals
habitat
Type of area an organism lives in
niche
Role in an ecosystem
type 1
Survivorship Curve: Most live long, K-selected
type 2
Survivorship Curve: Constant death-rate
type 3
Survivorship Curve: Most die young, r-selected opportunists
biotic potential
Maximum population growth rate under ideal conditions
limiting factors
Factors negatively affecting population growth rate
exponential growth
J-shaped population growth, unlimited
logistic growth
S-shaped population growth, limited
carrying capacity
Maximum individuals a population can be supported on by a habitat
competitive exclusion principle
No two species can occupy the same niche; one out-competes the other, other is eliminated
resource partitioning
Species seemingly coexist in same area, but occupy slightly different niches
character displacement
Selection of adaptations that reduce competition
keystone species
Important regulating effect on community, maintains diversity
symbiosis
Species interaction
mutualism
+/+
commensalism
+/0
parasitism
+/-
predation
+/-
competition
-/-
cryptic coloration
Camouflage
aposematic coloration
Warning coloration
batesian mimicry
Harmless mimics harmful
mullerian mimicry
Warning colors, both harmful
ecological succession
Predictable change in composition of species in community over time
pioneer species
Opportunistic r-selected
communities
Interaction of populations
energy flow
90% energy is lost through trophic levels
primary producers
Autotrophs
primary consumers
Herbivores
secondary consumers
Consume herbivores
tertiary consumers
Consume most other animals
detritivores
Organisms that consume organic litter debris and dung
decomposers
Organisms that break down waste/dead organisms