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About half of the hydrochloric acid produced annually in the United States ( 3.0 billion pounds) is used in metal pickling. This process involves the removal of metal oxide layers from metal surfaces to prepare them for coating.
Hydrochloric acid is used to recover oil from the ground. It dissolves rocks (often CaCO3 ) so that the oil can flow more easily. In one process, a 15 percent (by mass) HCl solution is injected into an oil well to dissolve the rocks. If the density of the acid solution is 1.073 g mL−1, what is the pH of the solution?
Ms. X., age 76, has been admitted to the emergency department with severe generalized abdominal pain and vomiting. No significant findings were immediately evident to indicate a cause. Six hours later, Ms. X.'s blood pressure began to drop, and her pulse was rapid but thready. Exploratory abdominal surgery revealed a perforated gastric ulcer and peritonitis. Explain why peptic ulcers may not be diagnosed in an early stage of development.