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H&F Exam #2
Terms in this set (53)
Muscle fiber is the same thing as?
hytrophy vrs atrophy
H: increased size of muscle fiber
A: decrease size in of muscle fiber
red muscle fibers that are fatigue-resistant but less powerful.
Rely on oxidative energy system.
more prevalant with endurance activities.
it is any activity engaging in more than 2 minutes
white muscle fibers that contract rapidly and forcefully but fatigue quickly .
relys on immediate and non oxidative energy systems,
predetermined at birth.
they affect activity and performance
muscular strength *know reps
high amount of weight or resistance and low amount of reps
muscular endurance *know reps
lower amount of resistance and a high amount of reps
ligament vrs tendon
ligament: bone to bone
tendon: muscle to bone
involves a muscle contraction without a change in the muscle length
involves a muscle contraction with a change in the muscle length
example of static muscular strength
side plank, wall sit
example of dynamic muscular strength
two type of contraction:
concentric: muscle gets shorter as it contracts (Causes movement)
eccentric: muscle lengthens as it contracts (controls movement)
Constant resistance exercise-
load stays constant load throughout joints entire range of motion. ex: free weights
Variable resistance exercise-
uses a changing or variable load throughout the joints entire rom. ex: machine weights, bands
ACSM recommendation for muscular strength
2 or more non-consecutive days a week
low to moderate reps (1-12), moderate to high resistance (60-100% of 1 -RM)
ACSM recc for muscular endurance
moderate to high reps (10-25), low to moderate resistance (30-70% 1 -RM)
An example of an exerciser and asking how she can approptialey increase her weight if someone is benching press 100 pounds?
increase reps at the weight you are at and then you can add 5% , we always increase reps first!!
difference between push and pull
- it is important to exercise between opposing muscle groups
- exercise the large-muscle groups first and then the small- muscle groups
-order exercises to work opposing muscle groups in sequence (push, pull, ect)
- if bicepts pull is ur first, then tricepts is your next
-chest and back muscles
- quads and hamstrings
best time to stretch is?
Goals of nutrition for activity
meet total caloric needs
do most supplements and performance aids work?
ability to hold an extended position at one end or point in a joints ROM
ability to move a joint through its ROM of motion with little resistance
in order to protect your spine and create stability you have to built what and it helps with back pain
hip and knee flexability!
Joint health: good flexability can prevent artheritis and improve balance and stability with aging
prevention of low-back pain and injuries: good hip and knee flexability protects the spine.
people with high or low flexability seem to have an increased injury risk. we do not want too flexabile, we want stability!
benefits of stretching and be able to write it out
-relief of aches and pain
-relief of muscle cramps
-improved body position and strength for sports and life
-maintenance of good posture and balance
- improving impaired mobility
gives an athlete their workout regimene and you have to identify which are appropriate
Know ACSM recommendations for muscular endurance and flexability
- ACSM recommends 2-3 d a week but 5-7 is ideal
We can measure what for flexability? we don't have to do overly intense stretches
How long do we want to hold the stretch?
30-60 seconds and do 2-4 reps
Proprioreceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
The contract and relax method
What are the statistics for back pain?
low back pain afflicts more than 85% of Americans by age 50
What is the purpose of the spine and benefits it provides for the body?
- it provides structural support for the body
- supports and protects the spinal cord
- supports much of the bodys weight
- serves as an attatchment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments
-allows movement of the neck and back in all directions
What are the causes of lower back pain?
Poor posture, slumping over shoulders, constantly sitting and not standing up, not stretching and having flexability over knees, being overweight
How to prevent lower back pain?
- using proper lifting mechanics
-maintain healthy weight
- stop smoking and reduce stress
- avoid, sitting, standing, or working in the same position for too long
- use a supportive seat and and a medium-firm mattress
-warm up before exercising
How to prevent lower back pain?
Perform low-back excercise
- emphasize muscular endurance
-engage in regular endurance excercise
- be patient and stick with your program
The body is divided into two sections
fat-free mass: bodys non-fat tissues like bone, water, muscle, connective tissue, teeth
body fat: essentials and adipose tissue
percent body fat is what
the percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat
fats that are critical for normal body functioning
- 3-5 % of total weight in men, 8-12% in women
tissue in which fat is stored under skin or around organs
**subcutaneous is preferred
What are the overweight and obesity percentages?
68.8% of Americans are overweight
35.5 % of men and 35.8% of women are obese
How are the obesity and overweight numbers measured?
using the BMI
Possible explanation of obesity and overweight and the numbers of where they are right now she asks specifically to apply it to your current city or community you are in? be creative
greater consumption of fast food
everybody drives even if there is walking bc they are lazy
Restraunts have increased sizes in portions at restrauraunts
People do diets but then when you come back from it you eat all you want and there was no point in it
What are some ways to measure body composition ?
What is BMI
-measure of relative body weight
How to calculate BMI
how to convert pounds to kilo
how to convert inches to meters
LOOK AT SLIDE W CALCULATION
weight (kg) / height (m^2)
-divide the mass by 2.2
- divide the length value by 39.37
Issues with BMI *look at article
-over-estimates highly muscular individuals
-under-estimates elderly individuals
- doesnt take into consideration the persons muscle
- an old measurement
- doesnt looks at muscle mass
Methods for estimating percent body fat
What is the most accurate?
- underwater weighing
- the bodpod
- skinfold measurements
What is the most accurate? DEXA
Give some guidelines for exercising for children?
- provide opportunities to excersice every day
-emphasize skill development and fitness rather than excellence in competetive sports
- make sure children are developmentally capable of participating in an activity
- make sure children get plenty of water excercising in heat
Give some guidelines for exercising for older adults?
- follow guidelines for aerobic excerscise as younger adults, but judge intensity on a 10-point scale of perceived exertion rather than by HR
- for strength training, use a ligher weight and perform 10-15 reps
- perform flexablility exercises at least 2 days a week for at least 10 minutes
Give some guidelines for exercising for pregnancy?
- see your physician about possible modifications needed for your pregnancy
- mild to moderate excercise routines at least three times a week
- favor non- or low-weight bearing exercises
- avoid excersize in supine position after first trimester
- avoid excersise that could cause loss of balance, especially in the third trimester
- drink lots of fluids
- do 3-5 sets of 10 Kegel excercise daily
- after birth, resume pre-pregnancy exercise routines gradually based on how you feel
Know that the risk of not excersising outweights the risk of excersing
A major guideline with with exercising for people with diabetes is
to check your blood sugar before, during, and after
Remmeber that the importance of a warm up and cool down, we want to get the body regulated especially for ____
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