SPA3011 Exam 2

Hyoid bone
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Terms in this set (162)
Ventricular folds- Second valve (going down) - Separated from true vocal folds by laryngeal ventricle - False vocal folds - Close during swallowing or effortful activity that requires anchoring, stable pressure in the airwayVocal folds- Third valve (going down) - 5 distinct layers: · Squamous epithelium · Lamina propria (3 types): 1. Superficial (Elastin) 2. Intermediate (Elastin) 3. Deep (collagen) layers · Thyroarytenoid musclesGlottisOpening between vocal cordsStiffnessresistance to being displacedElasticitytendency to rebound to the previous shapeVarying stiffness/elasticities create ________ waves rather than simple waveComplex periodicextrinsic laryngeal muscles- Attach to larynx and an outside structure - Stabilize larynx within the neck and allow for motion during swallowingInfrahyoid musclespull the larynx downSuprahyoid musclespull the larynx upAdductedclosed vocal foldsAbductedopen vocal foldsLateral cricoarytenoidsadduct the anterior section of the vocal foldsInterarytenoidadducts the posterior section of the vocal foldsPosterior cricoarytenoidsabducts the vocal foldsCricothyroidscontrol pitch by tilting thyroid downward, lengthening vocal foldsThyroarytenoidsvocal foldsCover-body model- Varying stiffness/ elasticities create complex periodic waves rather than simple wave - Different layers of vocal foldsMyoelastic Aerodynamic Theorythe vocal folds vibrate because of the forces and pressure of air and the elasticity of the vocal folds Myo= muscle force Elastic = tissue elasticity (Cover) Aerodynamic = air pressure/flowBernoulli Effectat a point of constriction, pressure will drop, and velocity will increase if volume is held constantOne Mass Model of Phonation- Each vocal fold is a single unit that vibrates uniformly - Pressure changes are created above the glottis by the passage of air through vocal folds - These changes create stronger opening and closing forces - Does not include musical wave motion of vocal foldsThree-Mass Model of Phonation- Each vocal fold is made of three independent but connected parts: thyroarytenoid, epithelium, and superficial lamina propria - Abducted. the top of the vocal folds is closer than the bottom - Adducted, the bottom of the vocal folds is closer than the top - Changes pressure within the glottis itself - Accounts for mucosal waveStages of the Glottal Cycle- Vocal folds are adducted air flow is started - Pressure below glottis builds up - Pressure pushes vocal folds apart - Elastic recoil and Bernoulli effect pull vocal folds back togetherMucosal waveVocal fold opening and closing "ripples" from bottom to top (vertical phase difference) --> "ripples" from back to front (opening) and front to back (closing) (longitudinal phase difference) --> creates complex periodic waves.Phonation Threshold Pressure- Minimum amount of subglottal pressure (Above ambient) required to start phonation - Varies based on volume and pitch: higher pitch requires greater pressure - Conversation: 3-5 cm H2O - Yelling: 50 cm H2OWhat two things increase/decrease phonation threshold pressure?Volume and pitchSpectral Slope- Rate at which successive harmonics decrease amplitude - Measured in dB per octave, typically around 12 dB per octaveGlottal spectrumline spectrum of a human voice: sound BEFORE modification by other resonatorsHarmonic Spacing- Distance between harmonics in a complex sound Ex. F0 = 100, space between harmonics = 100 F0 = 200, space between harmonics = 200________ is the reason why lower voices sound "richer" or more fullHarmonic spacingIn infancy, vocal folds are _____ in length3mmIn infancy, the average F0 is _____400-600 HzIn infancy, the vocal folds are _______undifferentiatedIn childhood, the vocal folds lengthen _____ for males and ______ for females0.7 mm/year 0.4 mm/yearIn childhood the three-layer vocal fold structure emerges around _____ year old.4By the pre-teen years, the F0 decreases to about ______230 HzDuring puberty, _____ lead to a 2-3x increase in cartilage weight for males over females on averageandrogensDuring puberty, male F0 decreases about an octave to _____ and females drop to about _______120 Hz, 220 HzVocal folds add an additional ______ for males and _____ for females11.57 mm, 4.16 mmPresbyphoniavocal changes resulting from the aging processIn older adults, breathiness and hoarseness are caused by _____incomplete glottal closure (thyroid muscle atrophy)In older adults, F0 ______ for older males and ________ for older femalesincreases, decreasesWe are very good at recognizing people by their ______Voice qualityJitter- Frequency perturbation - Timing variability between cycles of vocal fold vibrationShimmer- Amplitude perturbation - Loudness variability between cycles of vocal fold vibrationHyperadduction- Vocal folds closed too tightly, requires greater phonation threshold pressure - Voice "tense" - Neurological disease, shouting a lotHypoadduction- Vocal folds not closed enough, don`t offer enough resistance to passing air - Voice "breathy" - Neurological disease/paralysisHypernasality- Velopharyngeal valves are not closed all the way - Voice sounds nasalHyponasality- Velopharyngeal values remain closed or close too much - Voice sounds stuffyNormal frequency range for children is ______2 octavesNormal frequency range for adults is ______2.5-3 octavesNormal F0 for children is _____300 HzNormal F0 for females is _____200 HzNormal F0 for males is ____100 HzThe maximum phonation time for children is _____10 secondsThe maximum phonation time for adults is ____15-25 secondsIntensity range in mid frequencies is ____20-30 dBJitter (cycle-to-cycle variations) is _____<1%Noisesmall amounts of additive, turbulent noise in the higher frequenciesSpasmodic dysphonia- Vocal folds uncontrollable spasm closed (Adduct) - Also comes in spasms that open the vocal folds (Abduct)Botox is an optional treatment for ______spasmodic dysphoniaBreathy voice- Incomplete addiction of vocal folds leads to continuous, but turbulent, air flow - More energy in higher frequencies - Requires 3-4x normal airflow - If all sounds are breathy, probably either aging or a problem (vocal fold paralysis)Rough/hoarse voice- Raspy, low-pitched voice - Inflammation or other issues prevent vocal folds from freely vibrating - More energy in lower frequencies - Can be a basic infection (laryngitis) or a severe issue (tumors)Vocal registers- Produced by different types of vocal fold vibrationPulse Register- Lowest register: vocal fry, glottal fry, creaky voice - Starts around 48 Hz for both male and female voices - Vocal folds contracted (shortened), false vocal folds may lie directly on top of them - Loose medial adduction of folds, low phonation threshold pressure (2-5.5 cm H2O) - Multiphasic closure: partial separations within each full cycle - Shallow spectral scopeModal register- Middle register, "Normal" voice - Around 75-450 Hz for male voice, 130-420 Hz for female voice - Full body of vocal folds vibrate with mucosal wave - Vocal folds slightly shorter than resting position, with slack cover - Greatest possible amplitude range of all the registersFalsetto Register- Highest register, loft register - 275-620 Hz in male voices, 490-1130 in female voices - Vocal folds stretched very thin, tense, though cover is still lax - Requires greater phonation threshold pressure - Vocal folds do not completely adduct - Steep spectral slopeAverage Fundamental Frequency- Rate of vibration in vocal folds - Dependent on vocal fold length, density, and tension - Slow vibration = lower pitch (greater density and length, less tension/stiffness) - Faster vibration = higher pitch (less density and length, greater tension)Slow vocal fold vibration has a _____ pitch, ______ density, and ______ stiffness.lower, greater, lessFast vocal fold vibration has a _____ pitch, ______ density, and ______ stiffness.higher, less, greaterWhat is the biggest factor in changes of fundamental frequency?tension of coverFalsetto register has a ______ spectral scopesteepPulse register has a _____ spectral scopeshallowStandard deviationmeasure of how scattered other scores are away from the average toneWhat is the formula for variability of fundamental frequency?F0SDFrequency variabilitywhat is TYPICALLY used in conversational (modal) speechMaximum phonation frequency range (MPFR)Complete range of possible frequencies from bottom of modal to falsetto and excludes glottal fryMPFR has a range of about _____3-4 octaves Males: 80-700 Hz Females: 135-1000 HzAverage amplitude leveloverall level of amplitude during one speech task Measured in amplitude or intensity: - Amplitude = greater subglottal pressure - Intensity = how the pressure pushes the vocal folds apart and elastic recoil pulls them togetherThe average amplitude level is - usually about _____ for a normal conversation regardless of age or gender70 dBAmplitude variability- Changed within-utterance - Prosody and stress - Lack of variability can also lead to flat, unnatural-sounding voicesDynamic Range- The volume version of MPFR - Softest phonation to loudest shout: excludes whispers - Varies based on what fundamental frequency is used: midrange F0 has the greatest range - Usually about 50 dB - 115 dB - Male voices may shift both values up a little, overall, 65 dB rangeVocal range profileShows how volume and pitch interactX-axis for vocal range profilephonation rangeY-axis for vocal range profileDynamic range(dB)Voice Range Profile Shape- Dip around 390 Hz (male) or 440 Hz (female) shift from modal to falsetto range, dip less apparent in trained singers - Deviations can be used to diagnose problems - Also, can track progressTilted oval voice range profile shapeBroader midrange narrower at edges of frequency rangeHow do you create a Voice Range Profile?1. Select vowel (hint: /a/) 2. Find the lowest FREQUENCY that vowel can be sustained - A. At that frequency, sustain that vowel as LOUDLY as possible. Mark this down. - B. At that frequency, sustain that vowel as QUIETLY as possible. Mark this down. 3. Repeat steps 2A. and 2B. for the entire MPFR until you reach the highest frequency possible.jitter (perturbation)frequency variation between glottal cycles Values above 1% indicate a problem with vocal fold vibration or shape of the mucosal waveShimmer (perturbation)amplitude variation between glottal cycles Normally <0.5 dBNoise measuresRate of periodic to aperiodic sounds in the voice (in dB) Comparison of the percent of the sound`s energy that comes from periodic waves vs the percent of energy that comes from aperiodic wavesPolyps, paralysis, and other problems disturb the _____ of vocal fold vibration and increase noiseperiodicityHarmonic-to-noise ratios10*log10 (%harmonic/%noise) - Remember that dB is log scale - The "log10" part converts percentages to the correct scale - Most calculators just will have a button for "log", not "log10" Ex. 95% of the energy of a sound is periodic (harmonic), and 5% is aperiodic (noise) - HNR = 10*log10(95/5) - 10*log10(19) - 10*1.27 = 13 dB0 dB of HNR means that there is equal _____ and _____ energyperiodic, aperiodicQuantitative measure of vocal quality (normal adult around 15-20 dB)Harmonic-to-noise ratios are important to use as a ______Quantitative measure of vocal quality (normal adult around 15-20 dB)Electroglottography/Lx waves- Like EEG - Conductivity of electricity in tissues - Long opening = breathiness - Long closure = pressed - Irregularity in waves = hoarse - Closed vocal folds = little resistance to electric current - Open vocal folds = greater resistance to electric currentFor electroglottography, F0, jitter, shimmer can be calculated like waveforms with the formula ____# cycles/secondLx wave explainshow much of the vocal folds are in contact with each otherEGG Analysis- Multiphasic closure (tiny waves between big waves) = pulse register - Periodic steep-closure/shallow-opening = "normal" - Waves look irregular = hoarseSlope Quotients- Time it takes to complete each part of the glottal cycle (duty cycle) - Starting to close - Closed - Starting to open - OpenClosed quotientlength of closed phase/cycle length of cycleOpen quotientlength of open phase/length of cycleClose-to-open ratiolength of closed phase/length of open phaseSpeed quotientlength of opened phase/length of closed phaseContact indexdifference in closed-open phases/closed phaseSymmetry of contact between vocal foldslower values = higher symmetryEndoscopytube down your nose or to the back of your mouth, set-up for everything elseVideostroboscopyendoscope + strobe lightsHigh-speed digital imaging- Can capture individual cycles - Can capture aperiodic/irregular cycles - Slows down the recorded play-back of glottal cycles endoscope + better camerasVideokymographyendoscope + A VERY specific field of focusVideostroboscopy- Viewed as a series of still images OR locked to F0 for same stage in each cycle - Gold standardPharynx- 12 cm long - Resonance, swallowing, breathingNasal cavity- Separated by septum - Resonance/ breathingOral cavity- Changes shape - Resonance - Home of most articulatorsFor creating phonemes, the pharynx is bounded by the _____backFor creating phonemes, the cheeks is bounded by the _____sidesFor creating phonemes, the palate is bounded by the _____topFor creating phonemes, the tongue is bounded by the _____BottomFor creating phonemes, the lips are bounded by the _____frontVelum/Soft palate- Moveable - Directs air from pharynx into nasal and/or oral cavities - Lack of mobility/abnormal shaping can cause issues: hypernasality, hyponasality, food traveling up instead of downLevator veli palatini and musculus uvuli are responsible for _____contracting/raising the velumPalatopharyngeous relaxes the ______VelumPalatopharyngeus connects ______ to the ______ and helps with _______velum, pharynx, swallowingCoronal closureMostly velar movement with some lateral pharyngeal wall movementSagittal closureMostly lateral pharyngeal movement with some velar movementCircular closureEqual lateral pharyngeal and velar movementCircular with Passavant`s Ridge closurePassavant`s pad (posterior pharyngeal wall) moves forward, equal lateral pharyngeal and velar movementHard palate- Both the roof of the oral cavity and the floor of the nasal cavity - Arched surface provides stable resonatory spaceMaxilla- Upper jaw - Does not move much - Palatine process forms from the front of the hard palate - Alveolar process anchors upper teeth: alveolar ridgeMandible- Lower jaw - Moves in multiple directions for chewing - Horseshoe-shape Body = top Rami = sides - Attaches to skull at temporomandibular joint - Closes lips for bilabial sounds: /p, b, m/Children have _____ teeth20Adults have _____ teeth32Teeth are attached in the _____ and _____Mandible, maxillaTeeth create _____ for voiceless fricativesTurbulenceClass 1: Neutroclusion"Normal" position, upper arch just overlaps lower archClass 2: Distoclusion"Overbite", mandible pulled farther back than normal or smaller than normalClass 3: Mesioclusion- "Underbite", mandible pushed forward Ex. labiodental phonemes produced with bottom teeth and top lipLipsHighly mobile for speaking, chewing, expressing emotionOrbicularis oriscircular muscle around both lipsTongue- Highly mobilePosition of the tongue is one of the biggest determiners for __________ in Englishdifferent phonemes2/3 of the tongue lies within _____, 1/3 lies in the _______oral cavity, pharynxTongue bladehorizontal and vertical motionTongue tiphorizontal and vertical motionTongue dorsumhorizontal and vertical motion, concave/convex, spread/taperedPlace of articulationThe position in the mouth where a consonant sound is producedManner of articulationHow airflow is regulated through oral/nasal cavitiesPhonemes are named in this order:voicing, place, mannerObstruent soundsstops, fricatives, affricatesSonorant soundsNasals, glides, and liquidsVowels are classified bytongue height, tongue advancement, lip position (lip rounding), and tensionTongue advancementfront, central, backTongue heighthigh, mid, low