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72 terms

Psychology Wade and Tavris Chapter Six

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sensation
the detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects; it occurs when energy in the external environment or the body stimulates recepors in the sense organs
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
sense receptors
Specialized cells that convert physical energy in the environment or body to electrical energy that can be transmitted as nerve impulses to the brain
doctrine of specific nerve energies
states that different sensory modalites exist because signals received by the sense organs stimulate different pathways leading to different areas of the brain
synesthesia
describing one kind of sensation in terms of another
absolute threshold
the lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect
difference threshold
the smallest change in stimulation that a person can detect
signal-detection theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise
sensory adaption
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
sensory deprivation
the absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation.
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
hue
the quality of a color as determined by its dominant wavelength
brightness
intensity of reflected light that reaches our eyes
saturation
the intensity of a hue representing the amount of gray in proportion to hue
cornea
in front of eye, protects eye and bends incoming light toward lens
lens
works by subtly changing its shape to detect objects far or near
iris
controls the amout of light that enters the eye
pupil
lets light into the eye
retina
neural tissue lining the back of the eyeball and contains the receptors for vision
rods
respond to dim light, are periphery, and highly sensitive
cones
have low sensitivity, are in the center of the retina, respond to color
dark adaption
a process by which visual receptors become maximally sensitive to dim light
ganglion cells
neurons in the retina of the eye that gather information from receptor cells by way of bipolar cells and their axons make up the optic nerve
feature-detector-cells
in the visual cortex and are sensitive to specific features of the environment
face module
helps us to recognize faces
trichromatic theory
Visual theory, stated by Young and Helmholtz that all colors can be made by mixing the three basic colors: red, green, and blue; a.k.a the Young-Helmholtz theory.
opponent-process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
form perception
how people organize the world visually into meaningful units and patterns
figure
stand out from the rest of the envrionment, usually the lower part of a scene
ground
not as noticable as the figure
gestalt principles
Principles that describe the brain's organization of sensory information into meaningful units and patterns.
proximity
a Gestalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) objects or events that are near to one another (in space or time) are perceived as belonging together as a unit
closure
a Gestalt principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendency to perceive incomplete objects as complete and to close or fill gaps and to perceive asymmetric stimuli as symmetric
similarity
a Getalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) parts of a stimulus field that are similar to each other tend to be perceived as belonging together as a unit
continuity
gestalt law; sensations that appear to create a continuous form are perceived as belonging together (a whole)
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the close the object
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
interposition
monocular visual cue in which two objects are in the same line of vision and one patially conceals the other, indicating that the first object concealed is further away
linear perspective
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change
size constancy
perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed
shape constancy
tendency to see an object as the same shape no matter what angle it is viewed from
location constancy
perceiving something as remaining in the same place even though the retinal image changes as our point of view changes
brightness constancy
the tendency to perceive objects as retaining their brightness even when they are viewed in dim light
color constancy
the tendency for a color to look the same under widely different viewing conditions
loudness (intensity)
1) how LOUD or SOFT a sound is, depending
on the amount of ENERGY in the sound waves
2) measured in bels, decibels
[jet 90 dB; rustling leaves 20dB]
pitch (frequency)
frequency describes the physical periodic quality of a sound wave; pitch is a percept of that sound which depends not only on frequency content but also the sound pressure and waveform. A single pitch can be perceived from many frequencies.
timbre (quality)
the distinguishing quality of a sound; the dimension of auditory experience related to the complexity of the pressure wave
organ of corti
organ located in the cochlea; contains receptors (hair cells) that receive vibrations and generate nerve impulses for hearing
cochlea
the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
cilia
hair cells that bend when sound enters the ear
proximity of notes
helps you to tell which notes go together to form phrases
continuity of sound
helps you to follow a melody on one violin when another violin plays a different melody
similarity in timbre
helps you to pick out the soprano voices in a chorus and hear them as a unit
closure in sound
helsp you to understand a cell-phone caller's words even when the signal is shakey
papillae
small rough elevations on tongue and roof of mouth; contain taste buds
taste buds
structures on the tongue that contain the receptor cells for taste
supertasters
people who have the highest sentsitivity to all tastes, as well as mouth sensations in general
tasters
have normal sensitivity to taste
nontasters
Not so sensitive to taste, seek out relatively sweeter or fattier foods to maximize taste.
gate-control theory
theory that spinal cord contains neurological gate that blocks pains signals or allows them to pass. gate is opened by activity of pain going up small nerve fibers & gate is closed by act of large fibers or by info coming from brain
kinesthesis
tells us where our bodily parts are located and lets us know when they move
equilibrium
sense of balance
semicircular canals
the structures in the ear that are responsible for your sense of balance
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
critical period
a specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned
needs
An internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal/desired physical or psychological state (like hunger)
beliefs
what we hold to be true about the world can affect our interpretation of it
emotions
can influence our interpretation of sensory information, like when frightened children see a ghost and not a robe
expections
previous experiences often affect how we perceive the world, often called a perceptual set