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the detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects; it occurs when energy in the external environment or the body stimulates recepors in the sense organs
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Specialized cells that convert physical energy in the environment or body to electrical energy that can be transmitted as nerve impulses to the brain
doctrine of specific nerve energies
states that different sensory modalites exist because signals received by the sense organs stimulate different pathways leading to different areas of the brain
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
neurons in the retina of the eye that gather information from receptor cells by way of bipolar cells and their axons make up the optic nerve
in the visual cortex and are sensitive to specific features of the environment
Visual theory, stated by Young and Helmholtz that all colors can be made by mixing the three basic colors: red, green, and blue; a.k.a the Young-Helmholtz theory.
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
Principles that describe the brain's organization of sensory information into meaningful units and patterns.
a Gestalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) objects or events that are near to one another (in space or time) are perceived as belonging together as a unit
a Gestalt principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendency to perceive incomplete objects as complete and to close or fill gaps and to perceive asymmetric stimuli as symmetric
a Getalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) parts of a stimulus field that are similar to each other tend to be perceived as belonging together as a unit
gestalt law; sensations that appear to create a continuous form are perceived as belonging together (a whole)
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the close the object
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
monocular visual cue in which two objects are in the same line of vision and one patially conceals the other, indicating that the first object concealed is further away
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change
perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed
perceiving something as remaining in the same place even though the retinal image changes as our point of view changes
the tendency to perceive objects as retaining their brightness even when they are viewed in dim light
1) how LOUD or SOFT a sound is, depending
on the amount of ENERGY in the sound waves
2) measured in bels, decibels
[jet 90 dB; rustling leaves 20dB]
frequency describes the physical periodic quality of a sound wave; pitch is a percept of that sound which depends not only on frequency content but also the sound pressure and waveform. A single pitch can be perceived from many frequencies.
the distinguishing quality of a sound; the dimension of auditory experience related to the complexity of the pressure wave
organ of corti
organ located in the cochlea; contains receptors (hair cells) that receive vibrations and generate nerve impulses for hearing
the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
continuity of sound
helps you to follow a melody on one violin when another violin plays a different melody
people who have the highest sentsitivity to all tastes, as well as mouth sensations in general
Not so sensitive to taste, seek out relatively sweeter or fattier foods to maximize taste.
theory that spinal cord contains neurological gate that blocks pains signals or allows them to pass. gate is opened by activity of pain going up small nerve fibers & gate is closed by act of large fibers or by info coming from brain
a specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned
An internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal/desired physical or psychological state (like hunger)
can influence our interpretation of sensory information, like when frightened children see a ghost and not a robe
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