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Very large molecule in a living organism: protein, polysaccharide, lipid, nucleic acid
A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units (monomers) covalently joined together in a chain
Chemical process in which a polymer forms as monomers are linked together by the removal of water molecules
Chemical process in which macromolecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion
Biological molecule consisting of simple single-monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disacchsride) and other multi-unit sugars (polysaccharides)
Organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and thus different properties
Sugar molecule consisting of two monosacccharides linked by a dehydration (condensation) reaction
Carbohydrate polymer consisting of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides linked by covalent bonds
A storage polysaccharide found in the roots of plants and certain other cells; glucose polymer
A complex, extensively branched polysaccharide made up of glucose monomers; serves as as energy-storage molecule in liver and muscle cells
A large polysaccharide composed of many glucose monomers linked into cable-like fibrils that provide structural support in plant cell walls
"water-loving"; pertaining to polar or charged molecules (or parts of molecules) that are soluble in water
"water-fearing"; pertaining to nonpolar molecules (or parts of molecules) that do not dissolve in water
A large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three fatty acids; a trigyceride; Most fats function as energy-storage
Refers to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and therefore have one or more double covalent bonds. Unsaturated fats and fatty acids do not solidify at room temperature
Pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains contain the maximum number of hydrogens and therefore have no double covalent bonds. Saturates fats and fatty acids solidify at room temperature
A cardiovascular disease where growths called plaques develop on inner artery walls narrowing their diameter
The process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by the addition of hydrogen
An unsaturated fatty cid produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and present in hardened vegetable oils, most margarines, commercial baked foods and many fried foods
Type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings; three 6-sided rings and on 5-sided ring; examples include cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen
Synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its side effects
Protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed itself in the process
Covalent linkage between two amino acid molecules in a polypeptide; formed by dehydration reaction
First level of protein structure; specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide
Process where a protein loses its specific conformation and thus its function; separation of strands in the DNA double helix; can be caused by changes in pH, salt concentration, high temperature
Double-stranded helical macromolecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with the sugar deoxyribose and nitrogen bases A,T,G,C
Nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil
Organic monomer consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group; building blocks of nucleic acids
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