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boland unit 4

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antecedent boundries
a boundary line established before an area is populated
centrifugal forces
forces that lend to divide a country
centripetal forces
forces that bond a country together
commonwealth of independent states
confederacy of indepentent states of independent states of the former soviet union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs
compact state
a state that posses a roughly circular shape from which the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions
confederation
a form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
domino theory
the idea tha political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries setting off a chain reaction of collapse
east/west divide
geographic separation between the largely democratic and free market countries of western europe and the americas from the communists and socialists countries of eastern europe and asia
electoral college
a certain number of electores from each state proportional to and seemingly representative of that states population , each elector chooses a candidate beliving they are representing their constituency's choice. the candidate who recieves all the electoral votes for that state
electoral vote
the decision of a particular state elector that represents the dominant views on that elector's state
elongated state
a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape
european union
international organization comprised of western european countries to promote free trade among members
exclave
a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
federalism
a system of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government
fragmented state
a state that is not contiguous wholw but rather seprated parts
frontier
an area where borders are shiting and weak and where peoples of different cultures or nationalities meet and lay claim to the land
geometric boundary
political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines
geopolitics
the study of interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which thy occur
gerrymandering
the designation of voting districts so as to favor a political party or candidate
heartland theory
hypothesis proposed by halford mackinder that held tha any political power based in the heart of eurasia cdould gain enough strength to enertually dominate the world
imperialism
the perpetuation of a colonial empire even after it is no longer politically sovereign
international organization
an alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self determination
landlocked state
a state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which is bad for accessibility and trade
law of the sea
law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans adn their resources
lebensraum
hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to aquire living space for german people
microstate
a state or territory that is small in both size adn population
nation
tightly knit group of people sharing the same language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
nationalism
a sense of national pride to such extent as to exalt one nation above all others
nation-state
a country whose poplulation possesses a substantial degree fo cultural homogenity and unity
NAFTA
north american free trade agreement- agreement signed on Jan 1 1994, that allows the opening of borders between the united states, mexico and canada
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- and international organization that has joined together for military purposes
North/South divide
the economic division between the wealthy countries of Europe and North America, Australia, and Japan and the generally poorer countries of asia , africa and latin america
Organic theory
the view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum exporting countries- and internal economic organization whose member countries produce and export oil
Perforated State
a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
Physical Boundary
Political boundaries that correspond witn physical features such as mountains or rivers
Political Geography
the spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes
popular vote
the tally of each individuals vote withina specific geographic area
prorupted state
a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension, leading away from the main territory
reapportionment
the relocation of electoral seats to defined territories
pectangular state
a state whose territory is rectangular in shape
redistricting
the drawing of a new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes
rimland theory
nicholas Spyman's theory that the domination of coastal fringes of eurasia would provided the bade for world conquest
self-determination
the right of a nation to govern itself autonomously
state
a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is reconized by the international community
states' rights
rights and powers belived to be the authority of the state rather than the federal government
subsequent boundaries
boundary line established after an area has been populated that considered the social and cultural characteristics of the area
superimposed boundaries
boundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing cultural pattern
supranational organization
organization of 3 or more states to promote shared activities
territorial dispute
any dispute over land ownership
territorial organization
political organization that distributes political power in more easily governed units of land
theocracy
A state whose government is either belived to be divinely guided or a state under the control of religious leaders
United nations
a global supranational organization established at hte end of WW2 to foster international security and cooperation
balance of power
condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances or countries
boundary
invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
colonialism
attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political econimic and cultural principles in another territory
colony
a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather that completely independent
compact state
state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
elongated state
state with a long, narrow shape
federal state
internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
fragmented state
state that includes several dicontinous pieces of territory
frontier
zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
gerrymandering
process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the prupoose of benefiting the party in power
imperialism
control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
landlocked state
state tha tdoes not have a direct outlet to the sea
microstate
state that encompasses a very small land area.
perforated state
state that completely surrounds another one
prorupted state
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its intenal affairs by other states
state
area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
unitary state
internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government