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second exam 2 review
Family and close friends are examples of
a. in-groups.
b. primary groups.
c. out-groups.
d. secondary groups.
e. benchmark groups.
____ is the belief that one's culture and way of life are superior to those of other groups.
a. Counterculturism
b. Subculturism
c. Superculturism
d. Ethnocentrism
e. Cultural relativism
Groups are comprised of all of the following except
a. statuses.
b. members.
c. institutions.
d. norms.
e. roles.
____ is the process of creating new things; ____ is turning inventions into mass-market products.
a. Invention; innovation
b. Invention; diffusion
c. Invention; discovery
d. Diffusion; innovation
e. Discovery; diffusion
Norms that members of society look upon as not being critical and that may be broken without severe punishment are
a. folkways.
b. mores.
c. laws.
d. sanctions.
e. rules.
Your sociology class this semester is an example of a/n
a. primary group.
b. secondary group.
c. out-group.
d. benchmark group.
e. academic group.
For sociologists, a social institution refers to
a. the norms that are required to maintain a society over time.
b. an organized and established social system that meets one or more of a society's basic needs.
c. general traits that describe a social phenomenon rather than every case.
d. a generalization about an observation.
e. the combination of five major social needs.
____ refers to the coexistence of many cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating another.
a. Ethnocentrism
b. Cultural relativism
c. Multiculturalism
d. Metaculturalism
e. Popular culture
Architecture, hair accessories, and technology are examples of
a. cultural boundaries.
b. tangible culture.
c. nonmaterial culture.
d. material culture.
e. primitive culture.
The introduction of personal computers into American society influenced the means by which we communicate. This is an example of which of the characteristics of culture?
a. Culture is learned.
b. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next.
c. Culture is shared.
d. Culture is adaptive and always changing.
e. none of these
Which of the following is not an accurate sociological statement about culture?
a. Culture is learned.
b. Culture is similar across cultures.
c. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next.
d. Culture is shared.
e. Culture is adaptive and always changing.
Which one of the following statements is not true regarding popular culture?
a. Americans are highly influenced by popular culture and incorporate popular culture into many facets of everyday life.
b. The mass media controls much of our popular culture through newspapers, magazines, and television.
c. Americans can influence popular culture by what they buy, wear, and how they express themselves.
d. America has laws forbidding the use of popular television characters on children's products.
e. None of these all of the statements are true.
Which of the following is not a component of Ritzer's "McDonaldization" of society?
a. Efficiency
b. Predictability
c. Creativity
d. Calculability
e. Control
Willa belongs to the Debate Team at her high school. The team meets once a week for one hour in the school library to practice for competitions. For Willa, the Debate Team is an example of a/n
a. primary group.
b. secondary group.
c. in-group.
d. out-group.
e. reference group.
____ are the standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, desirable or undesirable.
a. Languages
b. Norms
c. Mores
d. Values
e. Sanctions
A/n ____ is a small group of people who engage in frequent and intense interaction.
a. out-group
b. benchmark group
c. reference group
d. primary group
e. secondary group
Feminist theories most closely resemble which other major theoretical perspective?
a. symbolic interactionism
b. Functionalism
c. rational choice theory
d. conflict theory
e. exchange theory
Which of the following is not a major social institution?
a. Family
b. the economy
c. a police department
d. Education
e. Religion
The term "____" is often used by Americans to refer to activities such as reading Shakespeare's sonnets, gourmet dining, and attending the opera.
a. values
b. society
c. culture
d. refined
e. customs
____ groups meet our expressive (or emotional) needs; ____ groups meet our instrumental (or task-oriented) needs.
a. In; out
b. Out; in
c. Secondary; primary
d. Primary; secondary
e. Primary; in
College students represent a
a. counterculture.
b. common culture.
c. metaculture.
d. subculture.
e. transculture.
In most societies, murder and infidelity are considered violations of a
a. norm.
b. more.
c. folkway.
d. culture.
e. sanction.
Which of the following is not true regarding norms?
a. Most norms are unwritten and passed down through generations.
b. Most norms are shared by only small groups of people.
c. Most norms vary depending on the situation.
d. Norms change over time.
e. Norms serve a specific purpose.
Which of the following statements best exemplifies the conflict perspective on culture?
a. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability.
b. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society.
c. Material culture, especially the media, creates inequalities specifically for women.
d. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another.
e. none of these
____ are those that share a sense of identity and exclude and devalue outsiders.
a. In-groups
b. Out-groups
c. Primary groups
d. Secondary groups
e. Reference groups
A ____ is a formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks by large numbers of people.
a. voluntary association
b. formal association
c. Bureaucracy
d. government
____ provides a sense of meaning and purpose to members of a society.
a. Family
b. Economy
c. The political institution
d. Education
e. Religion
When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, "They're primitive people who eat roast dog, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast." Harry's reply is as an example of
a. ethnocentrism.
b. cultural relativism.
c. cultural diffusion.
d. the self-fulfilling prophecy.
e. the relativist fallacy.
Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds travel around the country in their R.V. When they need to stop, they choose to stop at the local McDonald's because they always know what to expect. Which component of McDonaldization does this example illustrate?
a. efficiency
b. Calculability
c. Control
d. predictability
e. none of these
The ____ organizes a society's distribution of goods and services.
a. Family
b. Economy
c. political institution
d. Education
e. Market
A/n ____ is a group that shapes our behavior, values and attitudes, and influences who we'd like to be in the future.
a. in-group
b. out-group
c. primary group
d. secondary group
e. reference group
____ are webs of social ties that link individuals to one another.
a. Social groups
b. Social networks
c. Social statuses
d. Social systems
e. Social links
The ____ maintains law and order.
a. family
b. economy
c. political institution
d. military
e. religion
Specific rules of right and wrong are called
a. values.
b. symbols.
c. language.
d. culture.
e. norms.
Alexander and Evan are huge fans of their college football team, the Warriors. For them, anything "Warrior" is good. The Warriors' chief rivals are the Eagles. Alexander and Evan have written a number of chants which are meant to antagonize the Eagles' fans. For Alexander and Evan, the Eagles are a/n
a. in-group.
b. out-group.
c. reference group.
d. primary group.
e. secondary group.
Which of the following does not make up a social group?
a. Tawny and Stella, twin sisters who "share everything"
b. Logan and Leo, who are African Americans and celebrate Kwanza
c. Isabella, Lacey, and Amanda, who have played on the school volleyball team for three years together
d. Alton and Rachel, college students who are active members of the Campus Catholic Club
e. Marge, a 14-year-old who enjoys playing online computer games
Values are concrete guidelines for how to act in specific situations.
Primary groups are more intense and contribute more emotionally than secondary groups.
Sociologists study both material and nonmaterial cultures, but they are typically more interested in nonmaterial culture.
Some U.S. cultural attitudes, such as seeing premarital sex as wrong, haven't changed much since the 1970s.
Sanctions for mores are stricter than sanctions for folkways.
What do sociologists refer to as the structure of relationships within which a culture is created and shared through regularized patterns of social interaction?
a. culture
b. diffusion
c. globalization
d. society
Peoples need for food, shelter, and clothing is an examples of what George Murdock refferes to as
a. norms
b. folkways
c. cultural universals
d. cultural practises
What is an invention
a. introducing a new idea or object to a culture
b. combining existing cultural items into a form that did not exist
c. making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality
d. the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives
What term do sociologists use to refer to the process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society?
a. diffusion
b. globalization
c. innovation
d. cultural relativism
Which of the following statements is true according to the Sapri-Whorf hypothesis
a. language simply describes reality
b. Language legitimates existing social, economic , and political interests
c. Language shapes our perception of reality
d. language is not an example of a cultural universal
Values represent shared (blank) whereas norms provide guidelines for shared (blank)
a. rules, ideas
b. beliefs, behaviors
c. language, technologies
d. actions, knowledge
What type of norms is deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society, often because these norms embody the most cherished principles of people
a. formal norms
b. informal norms
c. mores
d. folkways
Which of the following terms describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help maintain powerful socail, economic, and political interests
a. mores
b. dominant ideology
c. consensus
d. values
Terrorist groups are considered
a. cultural universals
b. subcultures
c. countercultures
d. dominant cultures
What is term used when one seeks to understand another culture from its perspective, rather than dismissing it as strange or exoctic
a. enthocentrism
b. culture shock
c. cultural relativism
d. cultural value
The three stages of Berger and Luckmans's model describing the interdependent relationship betweeen the individual and society are
a. statues, group, and institutuions
b. telling stories, making choices, and establishing networkds
c. constucting culture, constucting the self, and constructing society
d. role conflict, role strain, and role exit
In the US, we exspect cab drivers will know how to get around a city. this expectation is an example of which?
a. role conflict
b. role strain
c. social role
d. master status
What occurs when incomptatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person?
a, role conflict
b. role strain
c. role exit
d. both a and b
In soci terms , what do we call any number of people with similar norms, values, expectations, who interact with one another on a regular basis?
a. a category
b. a group
c. an aggregate
d. a society
Primary groups are characterized by
a. a series of relationships that link individuals directly to others and, though them, indirectly to still more people
b. formal, interpersonal relationships with minimul social intimacy or mutual understanding
c. social positions that are within our power to change
d. intimate face to face association and cooperations
The is postal service, def jam records, and the collge or university in which you currently enrroled as a student are examples of
a. primary groups
b. reference groups
c. formal organizations
d. Gemeinschaft
The principle of bureaucracy that establishes that work should be carried out without hatred or passion is known as
a. impersonality
b. hierarchy of authority
c. written rules and regulations
d. division of labor
What type of society did Ferdinand Tonnies describe as a close-knit community in which members have strong personal bonds
a. Gesellshaft
b. mechanical
c. gemeinschaft
d. organic
Sociologist Daniel Bell uses which of the following term to refer to a society whose economimc system is engadged primarily in the process and control of information
a. postmodern
b. horticultural
d. postindustrial
What characteristic of postmodern life emphasizes the importance of consumption on identity creation
a. stories
b. images
c. choices
d. networks