GEOS 185-Test #1
Terms in this set (110)
A well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
Explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.
How old is Earth?
4.6 Billion years old.
The study of Earth's atmosphere.
Which group of planets in our solar system are know as the terrestrial planets?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
Which group of planets within the solar system are know as the Jovian, or giant planets?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Which three groups of substances compose both the inner and outer planets of the solar system?
gases, ices, rocks
Which characteristic is shared by both the terrestrial and the Jovian planets in our solar system?
-Made mostly of metallic
The planets located closest to the sun are smaller and have high density. How does the nebular hypothesis account for these planets being situated in this position?
The terrestrial planets have small size, high density, and are closest to the Sun because the extremely high temperatures associated with formations allowed only silicate minerals and metals to form solids.
The planets that are farthest from the Sun are the largest bodies in the solar system, but have the lowest average densities. Which is the best explanations for the arrangement of the planets?
The Jovian planets had temperatures that were low enough to allow accumulation of ices, which caused planets of large size.
Which parameter is multiplied by your mass to calculate your weight on another planet?
The acceleration due to gravity exerted by the planet in question.
Which planet in our solar system has the greatest number of satellites or moons?
It takes Mars 1.886 Earth years to orbit the Sun. If you lived on Mars, how old would you be on that planet?
your Earth age divided by 1.886
A visit to which planet would result in the greatest positive difference from your Earth weight?
Compared with your Earth age, on which planet in the solar system would your numerical age be the least?
Olympus Mons, thought to be the largest volcano in the solar system, can be found on which planet?
The blue color of both Uranus and Neptune is caused by the presence of which gas in their atmospheres?
Which satellite in the solar system exhibits active volcanism?
Which is the only planet in the solar system whose axis of rotation is in an orientation parallel to its orbital plane?
It was stated in the animation that in our solar system, Mars generates more interest by scientists and nonscientists than any other planet. For which reason do you think Mars generates so much interest by these groups?
Mars is the planet closest to Earth and has many similarities.
What evidence observed on Mars indicates that at one time it may have had a warmer climate and a water cycle similar to that on Earth?
Large valleys that resemble river channels.
Characteristics of Terrestrial Planets
-Solid, rocky surface
-Located within theinner solar system
Characteristic of Jovian Planets
-Extensive ring system
-Numerous orbiting moons
-Low average density
-Primary composed of hydrogen helium, and hydrogen compounds
Characteristics of Comet
-Form a coma when near the Sun
-Visible in the sky as a fuzzy patch of light that rises and sets with the stars
-Most are located either in the Kuiper belt or Oort Cloud
Characteristics of Meteors
-Visible in the sky as a bright streak of light for only a few seconds
-Dust particles entering Earth's atmosphere at high speed
Characteristic of Astroids
-Typically orbit the Sun at approximately 3 AU
-Compositions similar to that of the terrestrial planets
Anorthosite represents the oldest rock type found on the Moon and is unique because it is primarily composed of a single mineral. What mineral is it?
Which process results in the formation of breccias on the Moon?
The broad, flat, dark areas, or maria, seen on the Moon from Earth are composed of which material?
Basaltic lava flows
Which hypothesis best explains the way scientists think the Moon was formed?
The Moon was formed by ejecta released when a Mars-sized body collided with Earth very early in its history.
The occurrence of crystals in the rocks obtained from the Moon during Apollo missions indicates that they formed by which process?
Crystallization from a melt
Earth and the Moon are in extremely close proximity to each other in the solar system. However, in appearance, the Moon exhibits extensive cratering, while Earth does not. Which best explains this discrepancy in the appearance of these two bodies?
Earth has an atmosphere, water, and tectonic activity, so most of the craters on Earth have been removed by erosion or eliminated via subduction.
The moon has two distinct types of terrain. What are they?
Characteristic of the Moon's Maria terrain
Characteristic of the Moon's Highland terrain
-Big Island of Hawaii
-Mars's Olympus Mons
-Smooth surfaces of the lunar maria
-Old surface features of the lunar highlands
-Earth's Grand Canyon
-Current locations of Earth's continents
-Mars's Valles Marineris
-Mercury's many long,tall cliffs
List the planets from closest to farthest away from the sun.
List the planets from lowest mass to highest mass.
List the planets from smallest to largest
Which of the following is a possible distance of the Kuiper Belt from the Sun?
Which of the following is a possible distance of the asteroid belt in our solar system from the Sun?
Which of the following describes a trend that occurs with increasing distance from the Sun?
Distance between planets increases.
Saturn's rings are composed of __________.
Lots of individual particles of ice and rock.
Saturn's rings look bright because __________.
Light from the Suns reflects off the material in the rings.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the motion of the particles in Saturn's rings?
Particles in the inner rings orbit Saturn at a faster speed than particles in the outer rings.
On Earth, what causes the development of winds, ocean circulation patterns, and weather?
Unequal heating of Earth's surface.
Which represents the point in Earth's revolution around the Sun when it is at aphelion?
In early July
As the angle of the Sun's rays striking Earth flattens out at a particular location, how does this affect the amount of solar heating at that location?
Solar rays are more spread out and less intense.
If the tilt of Earth on its rotational axis were changed to vertical (perpendicular to the plane of orbit), how would that affect seasonality?
No seasonality would occur on Earth.
Which of the following characteristics of Earth's relationship to the Sun explains the existence of Earth's seasons?
A)Earth has a satellite called the Moon, which rotates around Earth.
B)Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane.
C)Earth orbits around the Sun, completing one orbit each year.
D)Earth's axis always points in the same direction relative to the stars.
E)Earth spins on its axis, completing one rotation each day.
B, C, D, E
What is the June solstice?
The time of the year when Earth's geographic North Pole is leaning most directly toward the Sun.
How does the inclination of Earth's axis change over the course of a year?
The inclination of Earth's axis does not change.
What is the December solstice?
The time of the year when Earth's geographic North Pole is leaning most directly away from the Sun.
When are the Sun's rays perpendicular to Earth's surface at the equator?
When do all locations on Earth experience equal lengths of day and night?
The bond between sodium(Na) and Chlorine (Cl) to form halite (salk) is a(n)_______ bond.
Atoms that share electrons have a(n) ________ bond.
The same side of the Moon is always visible from Earth.
The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ________.
Which one of the following is not true for minerals?
-They have a specific, internal, crystalline structure.
-They can be identified by characteristic physical properties.
-Many have a specific, predictable chemical composition.
-They can be a liquid, solid, or gas.
D) They can be a liquid, solid, or gas.
What is an Astronomical Unit(1 AU)?
Distance from Earth to the Sun, approx. 93 million miles
What seven (7) planets did the greeks discover?
Characteristics of Mercury
Characteristics of Venus
Characteristics of Mars
Characteristics of Jupiter
Characteristics of Saturn
Characteristics of Uranus
Characteristics of Neptune
Characteristic of Moon
Characteristic of Sun
What was Copemicus theory of the solar system during the Renaissance(1543-1609)?
He said the Sun was at the center.
What was Kepler theory of the solar system during the Renaissance(1543-1609)?
He developed the Laws of Planetary Motion.
What was Galileo theory of the solar system during the Renaissance(1543-1609)?
He developed the telescope to make new discoveries.
During the Renaissance what planet was added?
Earth became a planet.
What did William Herschel discover?
-First planet to be discovered in modern history.
-First planet to be discovered by the telescope.
Characteristics of Ceres
What did Giusseppi Piazzi discover?
Describe the different discipline of Earth & Space Science and Life Science.
Discuss the different methods that Earth & Life scientists use to understand and investigate the natural world.
Sketch and describe the five different "spheres" within the Earth System. Give examples of materials and processes that exist within each sphere as well as materials and processes that cross over two or more spheres.
What is Earth Science?
Name of all sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth and its neighbors in space.
What is Geology?
-Physical geology are rocks and their structures.
-Historical geology is the origins and history of Earth.
What is Meteorology?
Study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate.
What is Astronomy?
Study of the universe.
What is a Hypothesis?
A tentative explanation.
What is the scientific method?
Process in which researchers gather facts through observations and formulate scientific hypotheses and theses.
What is the nebular theory?
What is a physical enviornment?
What is the hydrosphere?
Dynamic mass of water that is continually on the move. (water)
What is the atmosphere?
Life-giving gaseous envelope.(air)
What is the Biosphere?
Includes all life on Earth.(life)
What is the Geosphere?
Solid Earth. (rocks)
What is Earth system science?
All the individual components(land, water, air, and life-forms) are interconnected.
What is a system?
Can be any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.
What is a closed system?
When no matter enters or leaves something. Example: Car's cooling system.
What is a negative feedback mechanism?
Mechanism that resists change and stabilize a system.
What is a positive feedback mechanism?
Mechanism that enhance or drive change.
What is Interface?
A common boundary were different parts of a system come in contact and interact.
What is mineralogy?
The study of minerals.
What are minerals?
Any naturally occurring inorganic solid that possesses an orderly crystalline structure and can be represented by a chemical formula.
What are naturally occurring minerals?
What are solid substance?
What are orderly crystalline structure?
What are generally inorganic?
What can be represented by a chemical formula?
What is a rock?
Any solid that consists of an aggregate of minerals, pieces or preexisting rocks, or a mass of mineral-like matter such mineral.