38 terms

Architecture History - Ancient to Medieval

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Terra Amata near Nice France 4,000,000BCE
• Suggests simple social structure
• housed 20-40 people
• Beach stones - built out of easy materials to build simple huts - sticks rock animal hides
• shows the early domestication of fire - variety of work spaces, hearth space
Lascaux Sanctuary Southwest France 15000BCE
• cave represents a complex system of murals and passages
• depicted human life in murals -hunting gathering
Stonehenge near Salisbury 3100BCE
• Note the care in bringing materials to the site - two options
o Glaciers brought the stones
• Lots of theories
• Three main stages of stone hinge
o built up the moat/ditch - filled some holes with a chalk
o Second stage - timber structure?
o Third Stage is the addition of the blue stones
• Stone hinge - represents a celestial tracking system/ solar worship
• Note the variety of the stone
o Sarsen, Blue stone, Sandstone
• Note the scale
• composed of concentric rings
• alter at the center
• heal stone stands outside of rings and marks cosmic events
• Structure is both part of the landscape and set off from it. It was closed in concentric rings of stone, yet open through the stone screens.
• sophisticated principles of planning and construction - axiality , orientation, geometry, statistics, transportation, and communal labor
Catal Hoyuk Anatolia 7500BCE-5700BCE
• More permanent complex society
• No front doors - access only available through the roofs
• Buried their dead under their house - keeping the ancestors around
• 18 levels of dwellings - 5,000 to 8,000 people at any time
• Egalitarian society - however goddess symbols and other suggest that the people placed an importance of the fertility

• was a highly organized city with specialized crafts, an extensive economy partly founded on trade, and elaborate architectural features
• Houses composed of living space and attached store room
o built in benches and hearth
o entrance through roof/chimney
• Houses interlocked and lacked windows and only showed solid wall to the outside allowing for increased protection
Mortuary temple of King Zoser Saqqara 2750BCE architect Imhotep
• the complex was originally going to a large mastaba, however after its initial completion it was expanded and 5 sloping steps were built on top of the original mastaba creating a stepped pyramid
• built out of stone
• in accordance with the mastaba Zoser was still buried underground
• The grand complex has walls that follow a breaking pattern of projections and recessions 33 ft high.
• Intense symbolism of the steps to the heavens and in the papyrus columns
Medium pyramid for Sneferu 2704BCE
Famous for not working .
Didn't work because of the angle was too steep even with the outside
Bent pyramid Dashur for Sneferu 2704BCE
Incorporation of chambers inside of the pyramid
Rock-cut tomb Beni Hasan 2000BCE
• how does this compare to the lascaux sanctuary in France
• replicating the ideas that are found in nature
• creating within the cave different levels of public and private - even within the cave there is a segregated between public, semi public and private.
• The program comprised of three elements: a colonnaded portico for public worship, behind it a combined chapel and effigy chamber usually in the form of a columnar hall and a sepulcher recess .
• Columns resembled lotus - 8 to 16 sided prisms frequently called prot-Doric but there is no proof that they're actually related
Queen Hatshepsut's Mortuary 1500BCE Architect Senmut
• Built 500 years after Mentuhotep's temple Hatshepsut's temple used Menuhotep's temple as a quarry
• Many of her relics were destroyed on her death - many of the faces.
• Again a classicized language
• Repetition of the idea of light and temple
• They kind of point towards the valley of the kings
• colonnaded terraces played a predominant architectural role. operating on a horizontal axis running perpendicular to the cliff face along an expanded set of three terraces.
• less based on the idea of mass but on empty courtyards, ramps and terraces.
• Represents the shift from old kingdom geometry to New Kingdom linear composition.
El Kahun plan
A state attempt of planning a town
Although it was designed to be ideal, the design did not accommodate for growing families
Housing in Egypt appears to be airy with open courtyard and columns
Not focused on the facade of the building, but rather focused on the interior
Tel-el-Amarna Plan 1370BCE
city was created to be a capital much city
Built all at once
Pylons were used to denote important buildings
Building for homes, trade and temples, but there were no civic buildings
Hierarchy of space - most important spaces are in the middle and supporting spaces on the edge
Houses contained granary
Very Orthagonal
Front entrance located on the side
Ziggurat of Ur Sumerian 2150-2050BCE
varied slightly from the basic theme: the vertical sides of the platform sloped sharply inward; the heights of the successive stages were carefully proportioned; then the walls curved slightly outwards to add buoyance to the weighty structure
Had three grand stairways that converged at an impressive gate.
best preserved ziggurat
built with the idea of an elevated platform
Ishtar Gate Babylon 600-500BCE
• Similar to the renaissance of Babylon
• the walls were wide enough for two carriages to move past each other
• Sumptuous architecture - enameled animal iconography
• the Ishtar gate was covered in lion figures
• notice the change in colors - much brighter/richer colors
• the animated liveliness of the lion figures they have emotions and fierceness
Palace at Knossos Minoan
Crete 1700-1400BCE architect Daedalus
completely irregular rooms
site is multipurpose - royal palace, administrative functions, and everyday production
Rich materials - stone, wood, murals
Light wells brought light into the lower ground
Murals suggest the importance of the sea and trade and their dependence on the sea
convolution of myth and fact - the Minotaur of King Minos
Treasury of Atreus Mycenaean 1330BCE
note the use of the corbel arch and the trebeated
they believe that the inside was covered with many rosettes
Not really sure what the building was used for because the body was not buried there
Lion Gate Mycenaean 1250BCE
trabeated structure
two lions surrounding a column - the column was wide at the top and narrowed at the bottom
The lions represent dignity and power, different from Minoan art, which is playful and less rigid. -The citadel entrance is known today as the "Lion Gate".
-The gate is an example of "Cyclopean Architecture", that is, structures, which seemingly could only have built by the mythical giants with one eye, know as the Cyclopes.
Basilica Paestum Italy 530BCE
Extremely exaggerated form
nine columns going across the front
Note the false porch in the back meant to make it appear symmetrical in the exterior
Notice the detains - the echinus appears more smooshed and all of the columns imply the inherent weight of the building
The stones are still held in place with a trebeated system - we have evolved from the stone hinge in idea and geometry and ornamentation but the technical construction has not improved much
Parthenon 447-432BCE architects Iktinos & Kallikrates under Phidias
the front of the building is not the first thing that you see, so which side is of greater importance
oriented towards the east
these are built of marble, most other Greek temples are built of limestone
there is a debate about the detail of the ceiling
Again there is a double colonnade that adds for greater height
Challenge of the corner - the rhythm of the facade with the meta pheses all were centered on the columns and were located as brackets at the corners
Erechtheion 421-405BCE architect Kallikrates
the most exceptional ionic building at the acropolis
the building was a shrine to many Gods and other famous figures
most unsusual feature were the porches at the ends of the west cella
Famous porch of the Maidens with the Caryatids - highlight the anthropomorphic nature of the Greek orders
completely does away with the idea of the classic Greek Temple
a variety of column types
built on the old temple of Athena
built on a number of sacred site
tomb of city founder
Athena's olive branch
Poseidon stuck his trident there
Caryatid's represent some slaves who fought with the Spartans
Theater at Epidaurus 4thBCE
these theaters post dated the era of the epics. A more permanent structure and the ideas of the parti of the space has remained
the orchestra
scene
Suggests a greater interest in civic building
the different layers of the performance
built in two phases the
built into a hill
the site is still used today
Temple of Hephaistos 5thBCE
most intact Greek Doric temple
not considered as optically refined of high Doric order
looking out over the complex
megalithic - elaborate post and lintel system of construction
god of fire and metal work
Stoa of Attalus 2ndBCE
colonnade, roof and a wall
its protected from the elements - closed and open
multifunctional - meeting areas, market areas
two stories high with two aisles
Bouleterion 175BCE
• A very aggrandized bouleterion - rounded out stairs
• Essentially a theater in a building
• The columns are moved to the side to increase the views
• has a temple facade entering the space with grand Corinthian facade
trabeated
of Post and Lintel construction. Literally "beamed" construction.
corbelling
courses of stone or brick in which each course projects beyond the one beneath it.
mastaba
an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof
pylon
The wide entrance gateway of an Egyptian temple, characterized by its sloping walls
hypostyle hall
A structure—most frequently a large hall—featuring a roof supported by row after row of columns.
ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
megaron
The main hall of a Mycenaean palace or grand house, having a columnar porch and a room with a central fireplace surrounded by four columns.
tholos
a type of tomb in Mycenaean architecture with a bee-hive shaped circular plan, also called a bee-hive tomb; a temple with a circular plan
caryatid
A Greek sculpted female figure used to take the place of a column.
stoa
long colonnaded building used as market, magistrates' headquarters, museum, store-room
Minoan
advanced, sophisticated society, more relaxed reflected in art and architecture
Myceanaean
warrior society reflected in art and architecture
Doric Column
crepidoma - sets the temple off from the surroundings - three steps upward at the scale of the temple - not at human scale
• total height was equal to the lower width of the column
Columns were set directly on the base
Had 20 grooves or flutes carved into them
the cap was composed of three parts
• necking
• echinus - same height as abacus transfers load through the necking to the shaft
• abacus - square block takes load from entablature
Ionic Column
originates from the Aegean coast land of the Ionian Sea
• rational in math and philosophy
• taste stemming from the rich decorative styles of the east
softer, richer, and more pictorial than Doric columns
did not sit directly upon the platform, but rather had a base
• cylindrical plinth, spira with two scotias,toras
fluting on the shaft
rations of base to height is 9:1 or 10:1
capital is dominated by the double scroll

• doesn't have the same problems with the corners
• doesn't sit directly on the stylobate but rater has a base
• originated near the ionian sea - and those people had an
Corinthian Column
the latest of the three Greek styles and show the influence of Egyptian columns in their capitals, which are shaped like inverted bells. Capitals are also decorated with olive, laurel, or acanthus leaves. Corinthian columns rest on a base similar to that of the Ionic style.