History Quiz Chapter 8
Terms in this set (50)
agents of Emperor Charlemagne who traveled throughout the empire to check the condition of the roads, listen to grievances, and see that justice was done
formal course of study
What untapped resources did Western Europe possess in the early Middle Ages?
Dense forests in the north, rich earth for raising crops, underground mineral resources, fish for food, large rivers ideal for trade, and mountain streams that could turn water wheels.
How did Clovis increase the power of the Frankish kingdoms?
He conquered the former Roman province of Gaul and earned their support by converting to Christianity.
What steps did Charlemagne take to improve government and unify his empire?
He helped spread Christianity to the conquered people on the fringes of his empire. He appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions; he gave them land so they could offer support and supply soldiers for his armies. He sent out missi dominicis to check on the roads, listen to grievances, and see that justice was done.
What happened to his empire after he died? (Charlemagne)
The empire soon fell apart. His heirs battled for power for neatly 30 years. Finally, in 843, Charlemagne's grandsons drew up the Treaty of Verdun, which split the empire into three regions. Later, the Muslims, the Magyars, and the Vikings all invaded.
loosely organized system of government in which local lords government governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord
in medieval Europe, a lord who was granted land in exchange for service and loyalty to a greater lord
exchange of pledges between lords and vassals
in the Middle Ages, an estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty
noble in Europe who served as a mounted warrior for a lord in the Middle Ages
mock battle in which knights would compete against one another to show off their fighting skills
code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
wandering poets in Europe in the Middle Ages
during the Middle Ages in Europe, a lord's estate, which included one or more villages and the surrounding lands
in medieval Europe, peasant bound to the lord's land
Describe three features of feudal society.
There was the monarch, then powerful lords, those lords had vassals
What obligations did lords and vassals have under the feudal system?
A lord granted his vassal a fief, but in return the lord had to promise to protect his vassal. The vassal pledged loyalty to his lord. He also agreed to provide the lord with 40 days of military service each year, certain money payments, and advice.
How did the code of chivalry affect medieval ideas about women?
The code of chivalry called for women to be protected and cherished. Troubadours adopted this view. Their love songs praised the perfection, beauty, and wit of women. Much later, ideas of chivalry would shape western ideas of romantic love.
What responsibilities did the peasant have toward the lord or a manor?
Peasants had to work several days a week farming the lord's land. They also repaired his roads, bridges, and fences. Peasants paid the lord a fee when they married, when they inherited their father's acres, or when they used the local mill to grind grain. Other payments fell due at Christmas and Easter. Because money had largely disappeared from medieval Europe, they paid with products such as grain, honey, eggs, or chickens.
What responsibilities did the lord of the manor have toward the peasants?
The lord gave the peasant the right to farm several acres for themselves. They were also entitled to their lord's protection from Viking raids or feudal warfare. Although they could not leave the manor freely, they also could not be forced off it. In theory, at least, they were guaranteed food, housing, and land.
sacred ritual of the Roman Catholic Church
payment to a church equal to one tenth of a person's income
having to do with worldly, rather than religious, matters
authority of medieval popes over all secular rulers
body of laws of a church
exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey Church laws
in the Roman Catholic Church, excommunication of an entire region, town, or kingdom
selling of Church offices
monk who traveled throughout Europe's growing towns to preach to the poor
prejudice against jews
Describe three ways in which the Church shaped medieval life.
The church was a social center and a place of worship, a place that everyone was treated equally (especially women), and a place of offering for the sick and needy.
How did monks and nuns help build Christian civilization in Europe?
It provided people with a life of service and a center of learning. Also, in this time period women were just starting to have a say in many thing, and they could enter convents (which was a good thing).
How did the Church increase its secular power?
During the Middle Ages, the pope was the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. He had papal supremacy; so Christianity spread all over the world.
What reforms did Francis and Dominic promote?
They set up friars.
Why were Jewish communities able to flourish in Spain?
Because the Muslims that conquered Spain in 711 were tolerant of both Jews and Christians.
in the Middle Ages, a written document that set out the rights and privileges of a town
money or wealth
group of merchants who joined together to finance a large-scale venture that would have been too costly for any individual trader
Bill of exchange
issued by a banker in one city to a merchant who could exchange it for cash in a distant city, thus freeing him from traveling with gold, which was easily stolen
someone who would pay rent to a lord in order to farm the land
new class of people, including merchants, traders and artisans- who stood between peasants and nobles
practice of leading money with interest
in the Middle Ages, association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
young person learning a trade from a master
salaried worker who was employed by a guild master
What were two effects of the agricultural revolution that took place during the middle Ages?
New technologies and expanding production.
What new ways of doing business evolved in the Middle Ages?
Many merchants joined together in an organization known as a partnership. Merchants also developed a system of insurance to help reduce business risks. Also, the Europeans adopted the bill of exchange.
How did a merchant guild differ from a craft guild?
Merchant guilds dominated town life, passing laws and levying taxes. Craft guilds represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, or goldsmiths.
How did guilds improve life for townspeople?
Guilds made rules to protect the quality of their goods, regulate hours of labor, and set prices. Guilds also provided social services. Besides operating schools and hospitals, they looked after the needs of their members.