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35 terms

Rural Sociology

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sociology
Aguste Comte (1839): the study of human behaviors as they are affected by social forces and interactions
social facts
ideas, feelings, behaviors
currents of opinion
state of affairs with regard to some ways of being (the popularity of an action)
sociologists
focus on the social forces that shape human activity; ex. walking with friends, using a credit card, serving children apple juice
sociological consciousness
discipline of sociology offers us theories, concepts, and methods used to look beyond popular meanings and interpretations of what goes on around us
troubles
personal needs, problems, or difficulties that can be explained as individual short comings related to: motivation, ability, attitude, character, judgement
issue
a matter that can be explained by factors outside the individual's control and immediate environment
Industrial Revolution
name given to the changes in manufacturing, agriculture, transportation, and mining that transformed society
mechanization
the process of replacing human and animal power with external sources, burning wood, coal, oil and other natural gas; sociology emerged from how I.R. impacted society
globalization
the growing role of external factors (economic, social, cultural)
global interdependence
countries depending on other countries; ex. importing oil
social imagination
ability to see how social forces, historical events and patterns, and the ways society is organized; enables people to distinguish between personal troubles and public issues
means of production
The land, machinery, buildings, tools, labor, and other resources needed to produce anddistribute goods and services
double consciousness
DuBois, "this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity." The double consciousness includes a sense of two-ness: "an American, a Negro two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder"
egoistic suicide
the ties attaching the individual to others in society are weak
altruistic
individuals have no life of their own and strive to blend in with the group
anomic
a state brought on by dramatic changes in economic circumstances
fatalistic
a state in which there is no hope of change and thus oppressive discipline against which there is no chance of release; ex. slaves/ abusive relationships
poverty
income less than an amount deemed to be sufficient to purchase basic needs (food, shelter, clothing)
sociological theories
a set of principles and definitions that tell how societies operate and how people relate to one another and respond to their surroundings
functionalist theories
questions of order and stability; society as system of interrelated parts; function as the contribution of a part to the larger system
functionalist perspective
to make order and stability in a society; society is made up of parts just like the human body; dominant values of society serve the functionalist needs (social order)
symbolic interaction
focus on social interactions and related concepts of self-awareness/ reflexive thinking, symbols and negotiated order
cultural diffusion
process by which an idea, invention or some other cultural item is borrowed from a foreign source; ex. McDonalds, baseball, olympics
values
shared conceptions of what is good, right, appropriate, worthwhile and important with regard to conduct, appearance and states of being; culture is learned; language is central in learning culture; strong communal orientation; fitting in and being a part of the group "the nail that sticks up gets hammered down"
norms
written/unwritten rules that specify behaviors appropriate and inappropriate to a particular social situation; it is usually the home culture that is the standard people use to make judgments about culture
"feeling rule"
norms specifying appropriate ways to express internal sensations
"social emotions"
internal bodily sensations that we experience in relationships with other people
folkways
norms that apply to the mundane aspects or details of daily life; shoes and slippers; bowing or shaking hands
mores
norms that people define as essential to the well-being of a group
culture shock
the strain that people from one culture experience when they must reorient themselves to the ways of a new culture
reentry shock
experienced upon returning home after living in another culture
cultural relativism
perspective that a foreign culture should not be judged by the standards of a home culture and that a behavior or way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context
ethnocentrism
a viewpoint that uses one culture as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways; being culture bound
reverse ethnocentrism
a type of ethnocentrism in which the home culture is regarded as inferior to a foreign culture