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Facial bones

The paired bones of the face are the maxillae, palatine bones, zygomatic bones, lacrimal bones, nasal bones, and inferior nasal conchae. The singal bones are the vomar and mandible.


This facial bone forms the upper jaw.
-Each maxillae is formed seperately but they are joined at the midline in embryonic stage.
-The maxillae articulate with all of the other facial bones except the mandible.

Maxillary sinus

They are large sinus and are present in each maxilla just below the orbitals.

Palatine bones

Are bones fused at the midline to form the posterior portion of the hard palate.. Each bone has a lateral portion that projects upward to form part of the wall of nasal cavity.

Zygomatic bones

These bones are the cheek bones.
-The temporal process extends to unite with the zygomatic process, to form the zygomatic arch.

Lacrimal bones

Are small, thin bones that form part of the medial surfaces of the eye orbits.
-Each lacrimal bone is located between the ethmoid and maxilla.

Nasal bones

Are thin bones fused at the midline to form the bridge of the nose.

Vomer bone

Is a thin, flat bone located on the midline of the nasal cavity.
-It joins posteriorly with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid, and these two bones form the nasal septum.

Inferior nasal conchae

Are the scrol like bones attached to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity inferior to the medial nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone.


IS the lower jawbone, and it is the only movable bone in the skull.

Hyoid bone

Is a small, u-shaped bone located in the anterior portion of the neck, inferior to the mandible.
-It does not articulate with any bone.
-Muscles of the tongue are attached to the hyoid.


Are nonossified areas also called soft spots.

Vertebral column

Extends from the skull to the pelvis and forms somewhat flexible, but sturdy longitudinal support for the trunk.
-It is formed of 24 movable vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx.

Intervertabral disks

These disks separate the vertebrae and serve as shock absorbers and allow bending of the spinal column.

Four curvatures

The cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and pelvic curvatures. From top to bottom.


They are divided into three groups; Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar.

Neural arch

Is bony and surrounds the large vertebral foramen.

Vertebral foramen

Is the foramen which through the spinal cord passes.

Intervertebral foramina

They occur between adjacent vertebrae and serve as lateral passageways for spinal nerves that exit the spinal cord.

Cervical vertebrae

Are vertebrae that support the neck that have transverse foramen which serve as passageways for blood vessels and nerves.


Is the first cervical vertebrae.


Is the 2nd cervical vertebrae.

Thoracic vertebrae

there are 12 vertebrae and are larger than the cervical, and their spinous process are longer and slope downward.
-Their ribs articulate with the transverse process and bodies of thoracic vertebrae.

Lunbar vertebrae

The spinous processes are blunt and they provide a large surface area for the attachment of heavy back muscles.


Is composed of 5 fused vertebrae. It articulates with the 5th lumbar vertebrae and forms the posterior wall of the pelvic girdle.


The most inferior part of the vertebral column which is formed of 3 to 5 fused, rudimentary vertebrae. Also known as the tailbone.

Thoracic cage

The thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, and sternum form the thoracic or rib cage.
-It provides protection for the internal organs of the thorax and supports the upper trunk, shoulder girdle, and upper extremities.


-True ribs (#1-7) or upper ribs are attached to the sternum by the costal cartilages, which extend medially from the ends of the ribs.
-The False ribs (#8-10) are attached by cartilages to the costal cartilages of the ribs superior to them.
-The floating ribs (#11-12) lack cartilage and are not attached anteriorly.


Or breathstone, is a flat, elongated bone located at the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cage.
-It consists of 3 bones; The manubrium, body, and the xiphoid process.

The 3 bones of sternum

1. Manubrium is the t-shaped upper portion that articulates with the first two pairs of ribs.
2. The body is the larger middle segent
3. The xiphoid process is the small inferior portion.

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