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MGT 353 Midterm
Terms in this set (123)
What is creativity compared to innovation?
The generation of NOVEL and USEFUL ideas. Its about breaking down prior assumptions and making new connections
What is innovation compared to creativity?
It implements creative ideas and changes things in the world
why is creativity important in businesses?
Creativity pays off, it fosters growth and innovation which expands company wealth
Creativity happens with:
individuals, coalitions and teams, and organizations
What is Systemic creativity? and why is it important?
asks everyone to be a leader. No artificial designations between "creative" people and "everyone else" Anyone who takes initiative leads. It sustains creativity!
What are the 4 dynamics of creativity
Breaking and making connections
Curiosity and fear
Psychologist Jordan Peterson describes motivation as a function of the difference between
what people expect to happen if they don't intervene and what they desire
What are 2 of Guilford's 3-factors in the model of creativity?
Fluency: How many different ideas you have generated.
Flexibility: How many different types of ideas you have generated... which then pushes you into creativity
Originality: How unique is the idea.
What is it called when you have to come up with a certain number of ideas?
an IDEA QUOTA
Breaking a routine is like the dukes of ...
Brainbanks are useful how?
They store info you find interesting and put together info that you wouldn't normally put together (similar to a Pinterest board?)
You never know when a creative idea will hit so you should always...
Record your ideas!
Why did SCAMPER, scamper?
SCAMPER: Sally wants to
Substitute something and
Combine it with something else to make cookies but it will
Adapt something in it causing her to
Modify or magnify it and
Put it to some other use like making bread causing her to
Eliminate something from the recipe and
Reverse or rearrange it
The measure of the emotional investment it takes for people to break natural inertia, to move away from their attachment to their current circumstances and move towards what they want.
motivation that arises from the task itself, your personal interest drives it
motivation that arises from sources outside of a task, that is driven by money or fame rewards
How does extrinsic motivation undermine creativity?
With a Win-lose competition within an organization
Peoples concern with rewards
Constraint on how the work is to be done
What are some examples of how you (or someone you know) had intrinsic motivation that was complemented by extrinsic motivation?
Self interest to solve problem (intrinsic), boss will like it (extrinsic)
Can a company have intrinsic motivation for creativity? If so, how?
yes, through recognition and encouragement for innovation
The psychic state whereby people explore the unknown possibilities that motivation makes manifest
What transforms the unknown from something potentially dangerous into something manageable, interesting, and beneficial?
Curiosity is an aspect of:
the search for knowledge and sense
What does the unknown of something cause?
What is the role of fear in Creativity?
motivation causes curiosity and curiosity causes fear of the unknown
Most people learn by life from experience to
manage their fears and reduce risk
People are motivated by
What can employees do to move through the fear in creativity?
remind themselves of past successes
intrinsic motivation causes more tolerance of fear and risk
anticipating the fear helps tolerance of it later on
Where does most of the work of creativity get done?
through Making and Breaking Connections
when people voluntarily organize themselves to solve a problem or realize a new idea
Conflict, risk taking, diversity, and organizing for intrinsic motivation all ultimately depend on:
the flow of information
Because choices are seldom black or white
evaluation is needed
Creativity depends on:
embracing the risk
What is the key to engaging the 4 dynamics?
How do we get from selling books only in book stores to selling them on Amazon?
first break and making of connection was selling books in places like airports then the second break and making of connection lead to the creation of Amazon.
How were mirrors used creatively to help people?
Phantom Limb Pain, used mirror to help people imagine the lost limb so they could engage the muscles psychologically
What are 2 of the 4 techniques for making and breaking connections?
Reversing Assumptions (assembly line)
Creating new patterns through random word simulation
Reframing the problem (step into new shoes)
What are forces that work against creativity?
fear, imitation, conformity, the need to be right immediately, acceptance of fixed roles, paralysis from analysis
What is the role of personal vision in creativity and why is it important?
personal connection motivates people, then they become curious and create something. it is important because without it its difficult to be intrinsically motivated
What are some ways that you can build a greater ability to be open to the new?
Putting yourself in purposeful new situations
allow yourself to be uncomfortable
mix up your routine
Motivation is the first of the creative dynamics, it can:
drive people into action or it can draw them into action
What are examples of what you can do to avoid keeping connections from solidifying too early?
Pre deadline, devils advocate,
question initial assumptions
don't stop at first solution, find other ones
consider all possibilities (could get a better or more creative approach)
Each person in a given environment tends to:
act in ways the reinforce other people's expectations
A common collection of behaviors and expectations
Expectations only change after:
What do climates provide?
The safety necessary for curiosity to flourish, and support and patience for successful evaluation.
What does the Corpus Callosum do?
it links the two sides of the brain
Karolczak's 3 principles
Collaboration, feedback, and flexibility
The bubble of a personal creative climate
insulates people from indifference or hostility of the larger climate
The more effective your connection breaking and making
the stronger the bubble
When you collaborate with others
your own self-defenses can kill your creativity
What strengthens a personal creative climate?
right brain =
left brain =
analytical, focused, details
What practical suggestions for encouraging creative insight can be offered from the research described in the The New Yorker article reading?
leave time to let your mind wander
What are characteristics of solving a problem with analysis?
Analysis you consciously come to the answer
What are characteristics of solving a problem with insight?
Insight it comes to you without focus
What are the phases of the insight process? (PSI)
Preparatory phase: where you quiet down senses to focus
Search phase: where your brain relaxes and searches for information
Insight: brain makes sudden connection w/ gamma rhythms to create "aha" moment
Why is the moment of creative insight is described as paradoxical?
Surprised you found the answer but you also aren't surprised because it was always there
cant explain exact pattern, but there is a connection
Lead by following
Win by losing
Seek diversity, but build a shared vision
Build a cohesive team, but welcome conflict
Set realistic but challenging goals
The best control comes from not controlling
Techniques of encouraging creative insight
what iffing: What if people slept 23 hours every day and were awake for only one hour?
What is the problem?
Convert the problem into a paradox.
Reduce the paradox into a book title to capture its essence.
Find an analogy that reflects the essence of the paradox.
What is the unique feature of this analogy?
Use an equivalent of this unique feature to trigger new insights.
New idea: Serve inexpensive gourmet food in the cafeteria
What is a Lead User?
leader users are people with advance knowledge and experience that others in the particular niche share
How do you overcome the limitations of assigned teams to encourage creativity?
include everyone and allow them to decide what the goals are
How conflict can hurt creativity?
Can hurt by shutting down creativity if it overpowers it/shuts ideas down
How conflict can help creativity?
Can help improve creativity by asking how to improve and building off of ideas
How can you increase the likelihood that conflict will help creativity?
it has people challenge each others assumption, constructive criticism, understanding the intent of the conflict, encourage participants toward curiosity over the flaws
Cross cutting the organization with different managers and other responsibilities: sharing info
What is the problem with matrix organizations?
Problem: answering to different managers who want things at the same time or in different formats
Why does information not always flow easily through organizations?
Disconnect between departments and competition between them
What are some ways that organizations increase the chances that information is shared across different parts of the company?
loose entrepreneurship governance
What 3 dynamics does climate engage?
curiosity and fear
What is a climate for creativity and how is it made?
A climate for creativity is made where the organization is open to ideas and does not shut them down, created with individuality, safety, support and patience
What are different tactics used to make creative climates?
Set up the office in a way that encourages employees to interact and take trips out of the office to get a fresh perspective and rest their brains.
Let people explore unrelated disciplines/areas outside of job description and award for doing so
Why are autonomy and organizational support important for a climate for creativity?
Autonomy is important for making people feel like they have the power to creatively come up with ideas and are given the resources to do so. Too many resources stifle creativity but too few don't provide the employees with all the things they need to work on their ideas. If you feel you have power over your ideas (such as a designer) you're more likely to challenge what you know and you come up with.
What is the role of passion in strengthening a personal creative climate?
Passion develops a climate with higher energy for more imaginative and more productive breaking and making of connections. If you are passionate than you are at your creative best
The relationship between personal creative climate and surrounding organizational climate must be
complementary, only then will creative thinking bloom
3 Pronged approach?
top down:Teaching managers or "top tier" workers on how to coach their subordinates
bottom up: Teaching "bottom" employees on how they can make a difference
brushfire: Look to pre-set teams to learn how to be creative or to test out ideas
How can financial rewards be offered in a way that is helpful to creativity?
Recognition as a reward encourages the curiosity-seeking, risk-taking, and connection-making behaviors coincident with creative thinking.
What can a leader do to communicate the value of creative change?
aggressively communicate that creativity is a priority in the organization and publicly encourage it.
How can performance feedback hinder creativity?
It can make you discouraged, not take as many risks,
How can individuals receive performance feedback in a way that does not hinder creativity?
Tell them what you like about the idea and then tell them what they should fix about it.
What is the relationship between resources and innovation?
Too many resources, hinders innovation by being overbearing
Too few resources, not enough to implement your idea
What does it mean to experience "push" towards creative change?
push: your facing some kind of threat
What does it mean to experience "pull" towards creative change?
pull: more positive, its an opportunity, inspirational or motivational, vision of what could be
Guiding the systematically creative company has three areas of responsibility:
watching, acting, and learning
Maybe add more stuff from Ch. 6
Design thinking can be described as
a discipline that uses the designer's sensibility and methods to match people's needs with what is technologically feasible and what a viable business strategy can convert into customer value and market opportunity.
Thinking like a designer can
transform the way you develop products, services, processes and strategy
Design thinking process
Inspiration, ideation, implementation
The larger the group
the more powerful and stable the climate
People form expectations from
the behaviors they observe
The ability of individuals to achieve full creative potential depends on
their ability to create their own internal climate and to influence their ability to create their own internal climate and to influence the immediate climate around them
Once you make a conscious effort at creativity and have developed a sense of personal creative worth,
your sophistication can begin to grow
The more deeply a person understands their creative profile, the more they will be able to
create circumstances in which they will flourish
What does diversity bring?
breadth of perspective to the tasks identifying and criticizing age-old assumptions and recognizing new possibilities
When groups are purposefully constructed to include diverse perspectives
the groups gain in terms of the number and variety of angles from which a problem can be assessed
The good idea people
look at a problem and return with a solution
The reflective people
see connections and understand how work on one problem can apply to another
The people who can conceptualize
can see the big picture
What can training do?
it can enable business people to challenge what they have been taught, welcomes new ideas, and challenges them to think about their own thinking
Leadership is usually
the least diverse group in a company
Without diversity of thinking and perspective in ints leaders a company is less likely to:
-identify creative employees
-embrace the conflict inherent in breaking and making connections
-lack the vision needed to make the best use of creativity they have
When people voluntarily organize themselves to solve a problem or search for opportunities
In a company, motivation, curiosity and evaluation
are nurtured greatly by the corporate climate
making and breaking connections is
the pivotal dynamic of the creative process
Employees and clients has to be taught new ways of thinking of furniture and space as critical deign elements. They brought groups of different people together for creative thinking processes.
The more a company is dependent on an old map the more disturbing a new connection can be. The success comes in encouraging (positive) conflict and risk taking. In promoting diversity.
Companies that encourage risk-taking increase the likelihood of
breaking and making connections
The short term risk in challenging assumptions and breaking connections reduces the
longer term risk of relying on outdated assumptions
Individual tolerances for risk taking
Pressure of time and risk of wasting it triggers
anxiety, drives managers to shut down early to avoid failure
When is curiosity hard to sustain?
In moments of fear
Once the brain is focused, the cortex needs to relax in order to
seek out more remote associations in the right hemisphere, which will provide insight
The insight process is a delicate
What phase is critical in the insight process?
The relaxation phase
Innovation is powered by a
thorough understanding, through direct observation, of what people want and need in their lives and what they like or dislike about the way particular products are made, packaged, marketed, sold, and supported
Climate is self
reinforcing. And attracts like people.
People of passion can develop
a local climate that supports higher energy for more imaginative and more productive breaking and making connections
The individual climate impacts
the local climate, which can impact the global climate
Formalized relationships can hamper flexibility
poor fits in talent or style may be hard to correct, members may join without intrinsic motivation
Conflict between different ideas and points of view can be
instrumental in breaking down established connections and generating new material for new solutions
What are the negative effects of conflict?
It can raise fear, lower, motivation, shut down connection making, distort evaluation and damage client.
The innovation value chain view presents
innovation as a sequential, three-phase process that involves idea generation, idea development, and the diffusion of developed concepts.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
MGT 353 Creativity and Innovation Final
"The Eureka Hunt"
Creativity Ch. 4 & Design Thinking Article
Medici String Quartet Article
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