Grade 10 biology
Terms in this set (80)
1. All living thing are made up of one or more cells and their products.
2. The cell is the simplest unit that can carry out all life processes.
3. All cells come from preexisting/ other cells; they do not come from non-living matter.
A cell that does not contain a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
A cell that contains a nucleus and other organelles, each surrounded by a thin membrane
A cell structure that performs a specific function for the cell
Basic cell activities to stay alive
take materials from the environment,
get rid of wastes,
move substances to where they are needed, and reproduce.
All organelles inside the cell are suspended in cytoplasm. It is mostly water, but also contains many other
substances that the cell stores until they are needed.
It is a flexible double-layered structure that surrounds the cell. Its function is both to support the cell and to allow
some substances to enter while keeping others out.
It is a roughly spherical structure in the cell that contains genetic information that controls all cell activities.
They are sometimes called the "power plants" of the cell because that make energy available to the cell
Celular Respiration occurs in this organelle
It is a network of fluid-filled tubes extending throughout the cytoplasm from the nuclear membrane to the cell
membrane. They transport materials, such as proteins, through the cell.
Collect and process materials to be removed from the cell. They also make and secrete mucus.
It is a single layer of membrane enclosing fluid in a sac. Its functions include: containing some substances,
removing unwanted substance from the cell, and maintaining internal fluid pressure (turgor) within the cell.
It is a rigid structure made of cellulose and is found just outside the cell membrane of a plant cell.
Plant cells usually have one large vacuoles. When theses vacuoles are full of water, turgor pressure keeps the cells
plump, which keeps the plant's stems and leaves firm. If water levels drop, the vacuoles lose turgor pressure and
the cells become soft.
They contain chlorophyll and give leaves their green colour. Chloroplasts absorb light energy which is used in
the process of producing offspring from only one parent; the production of offspring are
genetically identical to the parent
the process of producing offspring by the fusion of two gametes, the production of offspring
that have genetic information from each parent
transport mechanism for moving chemicals into and out of the cell from an area of higher
concentration to an area of lower concentration
the amount of a substance (solute) present in a given volume of solution
the movement of a fluid, usually water, across a membrane toward an area of high solute concentration
cell carries out all of the normal cell activities (growth, cellular respiration), including coping
its DNA in preparation for cell division.
Mitosis is the division of the nucleus into two identical nuclei. Mitosis has four phases: prophase, metaphase,
anaphase, and telophase. (PMAT)
The chromosome (containing DNA) become visible
The spindle fibres attach to the centromeres of each chromosome.
The nuclear membrane dissolves.
The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
The spindle fibres pull the chromosomes into the middle of the cell
The chromosome/centromere splits.
The sister chromatid separate into daughter chromosomes.
The spindle fibres pull each daughter chromosome towards opposite end of the cell
It is the final phase of mitosis.
The daughter chromosomes stretch out and become thinner and invisible.
A new nuclear membrane forms around each group of daughter chromosomes.
Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, then the entire cell divides into two new daughter cells.
Animal cell cytokinesis: cell pinching off to form two daughter cells.
Plant cell cytokinesis: cell wall forming to separate the two daughter cells.
Animal body, levels of organization
Cellular Level (heart muscle cell) —> Tissue Level (heart muscle tissue) —> Organ Level (heart) —> Organ
System Level (circulatory system) —> Organism Level (deer)
thin sheets of tightly packed cells covering surfaces and
lining internal organs.
- protection from dehydration
- low friction surfaces
various types of cells and fibres held together by a liquid, a solid, or a gel, known as a matrix
bundles of long cells called muscle fibres that contain specialized proteins capable of shortening or contracting
long, thin cells with fine branches at the ends capable of conducting electrical impulses
- communication within the body
- coordination of body functions
the organ system that is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver,pancreas, and gall bladder; the system that takes in, breaks up, and digests food and then excretes the waste.
The Digestive Tract
long tube with 2 openings at either end.
includes epithelial tissue (produces mucus), smooth muscle tissue, nerves, and connective tissue.
Digestion begins. Food is broken down both mechanically (teeth and tongue) and chemically (with enzymes found in saliva that breaks apart the molecules with food).
muscular tube consisting of smooth muscle tissue that connects your mouth to your stomach. Contains the epiglottis which seals the trachea while swallowing.
holds food and to further digest it by churning it (mechanically) and with digestive enzymes (chemical digest).
The Small Intestine
6m, narrow. Nutrients (from broken down food) diffuse through the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream.
The Large Intestine
1.5 m. The lining of the large intestine absorbs water from the indigestible food and the remaining solid matter is
excreted as feces from the anus.
Liver, gall bladder and pancreas
They produce enzymes and other fluids (such as bile) that aid digestion.
The pancreas produces an enzyme called insulin. Insulin regulates the concentration of glucose (sugar in the
a disease in which the pancreas produces too much or too little insulin.
the organ system that is made up of the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels; the system that transports oxygen and nutrients throughout the body and carries away wastes. regulates body temperature.
Red blood cells
make up almost half of the volume of blood; contain a protein called hemoglobin which allows them to transport oxygen throughout the body
White blood cells
make up less than 1% of volume of blood; infection-fighting cells
make up less than 1% of volume of blood; help in blood clotting
makes up over half of blood's volume; protein-rich liquid that carries blood cells along
made up of three different types of tissue: cardiac muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and connective tissue.
carry blood away from the heart. The walls of arteries are thicker than other blood vessels to withstand the pressure of the blood flowing to the heart.
carry blood toward the heart. The walls of the veins are not as thick.
tiny blood vessels with very thin walls that allow substances to diffuse between the blood and other body fluids. Every part of the body is supplied with blood by a network of capillaries.
Arteries and veins are linked together by capillaries.
group of conditions that affect the function of the heart
Coronary Artery Disease
occurs when the coronary arteries become partially blocked with plaque
caused by inherited genetics or by poor lifestyle choices
If the coronary arteries become completely blocked with plaque or a blood clot, the hear muscle stops pumping,
and the heart tissue starts to die.
Symptoms of heart attack
- chest pain ot pressure
- shortness of breath
- upper body pain
- abdominal or stomach pain
- sweating/dizziness/unusual fatigue
Angiograms and electrocardiograms are two medical technologies that are used to help diagnose abnormalities
in the circulatory system.
The Respiratory System
the organ system that is made up of the nose, mouth, trachea, bronchi, and lungs; the system that provides oxygen for the body and allows carbon dioxide to leave
hairlike projections lining the trachea and the bronchi and produce mucus.
Each bronchi branches/splits again and again, ending in tiny safe called alveoli. The alveoli have very thin walls to allow for the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood.
the organ system that is made up of 206 bones and skeletal muscle; the system that supports the body, protects delicate organs, and makes movement possible.
Loss of bone mass (calcium)
the organ system that is made up of the brain, the spinal chord, and the peripheral nerves; the system that senses the environment and coordinates appropriate responses.
Central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
- nerves that control the voluntary muscles
- nerves that carry information from the sensory organs, such as the eyes, ears, taste buds, and touch receptors, to the brain
- nerves that regulate involuntary functions such as breathing, heart beat, and digestion
disease that destroys the myelin sheaths of neurons in the central nervous system.
Symptoms of MS
- muscle weakness
- slurred speech
- difficulty walking
The Root System
The function of the root system is to anchor the plant, absorb water and minerals from the soil, and store food.
The Shoot System
The shoot system of flowering plants is made up of the leaves, stem, and flowers (when present)
Leaf / Phtosynthesis
Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts which are flat, disc-like structures called thylakoids. Stacks of
thylakoids are called grana.
Used for reproduction in plants
- food storage
undifferentiated plant cells that can form any kind of specialized tissue. located at the tips of roots and shoots and in the stems of woody plants
3 types of plant tissue
the tissues covering the outer surface of the plant
Dermal tissue includes both epidermis and periderm tissue
Vascular Tissue System:
the system responsible for transporting materials within a plant The plant's vascular tissue system transports water, minerals, and other chemicals around the plant.
transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots.
transports solutions of sugar produced by photosynthesis from the leaves to the stem and roots.
all plant tissues other than those that make up the dermal and vascular tissue systems. Ground tissues perform a variety of functions:
in the green parts of the plant, they manufacture nutrients by the process of photosynthesis
in the roots, they store carbohydrates
in the stems, they provide storage and support
unspecialized cells that can become any other type of cell
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Formula for Photosynthesis
light energy + carbon dioxide + water ---chlorophyll—> glucose + oxygen
Formula for cellular resptiration
glucose + oxygen —> carbon dioxide + water + usable energy (ATP)