2.14 Mycobacterium

abundant cell wall component of virulent mycobacteria - potent inflammatory stimulator - induces cytokine release (TNFa/IL-1) - activates macrophages and promotes granuloma formation
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the following pathogenicity describes ___________:
infected macrophages surrounded by leukocytes forms a tubercle (granuloma) which may be small with minimal tissue damage if there are few initial bacteria or large necrotic or caseous granulomas encapsulated in fibrin if there is a large initial bacterial burden. Granuloma formation prevents further spread and results in latency which can be reactivated years later.
Gradual onset with nonspecific symptoms (low grade fever, persists 2-3 weeks, chest pain, and a normal chest X-ray) leads to progression of active disease consisting of pneumonia, hisar lymphadenopathy, upper lobe infiltrates described the disease course of:mycobacterium tuberculosiswhat bacteria can be diagnosed by serpentine rods on broth growth, a chest X-ray, acid-fast stain of sputum or culture, or a purified protein derivative skin test?mycobacterium tuberculosisIFN-gamma release test (IGRA) is used to test:TB-sensitized T cells in patients bloodThis combination of four drugs is the first line therapy for what bacterial pathogen? RIPE Rifampin Isoniazid Pyrazinamide Ethambutolmycobacterium tuberculosislive, attenuated BCG vaccine protects patients from what disease?mycobacterium tuberculosisWhat disease is characterized by a bacteria which is spread person to person via respiratory droplets or skin contact and act as an obligate intracellular pathogen which invades dermal macrophages, Schwann cells of peripheral nervesmycobacterium lepraethe following clinical presentation is consistent with _____________: hypopigmented skin macule with a flat center and raised borders; nerve damage; sensory loss at skin lesionstuberculoid leprosythe following clinical presentation is consistent with _____________: disfiguring skin lesions, many nodules, extensive tissue destruction to the nasal cartilage, ears and bones with diffuse nerve involvement and patchy sensory losslepromatous leprosyhow to diagnose mycobacterium leprae:clinical clue: skin lesions with peripheral nerve loss Skin test: acid-fast stain of lesion biopsyThe Genus Mycobacterium is characterized by:Lipid rich, acid fast cell wall non, motile - aerobic bacilli serpentine cord appearance in vitroa member of the mycobacterium family that is commonly associated with infection in immunocompromised patients:Mycobacterium avium complex`