AP US History Chapter 8 Key Terms
Terms in this set (18)
Second Continental Congress (1775-1781)
Representative body of delegates from all thirteen colonies. Drafted the Declaration of Independence and managed the colonial war effort.
Battle of Bunker Hill (June 1775)
Fought on the outskirts of Boston, on Breed's Hill, the battle ended in the colonial militia's retreat, though at a heavy cost to the British.
Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)
Conciliatory measure adopted by the Continental Congress, professing American loyalty and seeking an end to the hostilities. King George rejected the petition and proclaimed the colonies in rebellion.
German troops hired from their princes by George III to aid in putting down the colonial insurrection. This hardened the resolve of American colonists, who resented the use of paid foreign fighters.
Common Sense (1776)
Thomas Paine's pamphlet urging the colonies to declare independence and establish a republican government. The widely read pamphlet helped convince colonists to support the Revolution.
Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)
Formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress. The declaration allowed American to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide.
Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789)
Declaration of rights adopted during the French Revolution. Modeled after the American Declaration of Independence.
American colonists who opposed the Revolution and maintained their loyalty to the King; sometimes referred to as "Tories"
colonists who supported the American Revolution; they were also known as "Whigs"
Battle of Long Island (August 1776)
Battle for the control of New York. British troops overwhelmed the colonial militias and retained control of the city for most of the war.
Battle of Trenton (December 1776)
George Washington surprised and captured a garrison of sleeping German Hessians, raising the morale of his crestfallen army and setting the stage for his victory at Princeton a week later.
Battle of Saratoga (October 1777)
Decisive colonial victory in upstate New York, which helped secure French support for the Revolution cause.
Model Treaty (1776)
Sample treaty drafted by the Continental Congress as a guide for American diplomats. Reflect the Americans' desire to foster commercial partnerships rather than political or military entanglements.
Armed Neutrality (1780)
Loose alliance of nonbelligerent naval powers, organized by Russia's Catherine the Great, to protect neutral trading rights during the war for American independence.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784)
Treaty signed by the United States and the pro-British Iroquois granting Ohio country to the Americans.
Privately owned armed ships authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping during the Revolutionary War. They were more numerous than the tiny American Navy, and inflicted heavy damage on British shipper.
Battle of Yorktown (October 1781)
George Washington, with the aid of the French Army, besieged Cornwallis, while the French naval fleet prevented British reinforcements from coming ashore. Cornwallis surrendered, dealing a heavy blow to the British war effort and paving the way for eventual peace.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Peace treaty signed by Britain and the United States ending the Revolutionary War. The British formally recognized American independence and ceded territory east of the Mississippi while the Americans, in turn, promised to restore Loyalist property and repay debts to British creditors.