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Terms in this set (40)

Anterior Pituitary Gland Hormones: (TP-FLAG)
T=Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-
Effect: Thyroid gland releases thyroid hormone
P= Prolactin-
Target: Mammary Glands
Effect: regulates mammary growth and milk production
F=Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Target: Ovaries/Testes
Effect: controls development of both oocyte and ovarian follicle within ovaries , controls development of sperm
L=Luteinizing Hormone
Target: Ovaries/Testes
Effect:induces ovulation, controls testosterone synthesis within testes
A= Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Target: Adrenal Cortex
Effect: stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids (e.g cortisol)
G=Growth Hormone
Target: All cells
Effect: release opf insulin like growth factors (IGF) from liver- works synergistally with GH to induce growth
Pineal Gland
Target: Brain
Effect: regulates body's circadian rhythm, functions in sexual maturation

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Target: Kidney, Hypothalamus (thirst center), Blood Vessels
Effect: Stimulates kidneys to decrease urine output, and thirst center to increase intake of water, is a vasocontrictor
Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Hormone
Target: All Cells
Effect: increased metabolic rate of cells, increased heat production
Target: Bone, Kidneys
Effect: decreases blood calcium levels
Parathyroid Glands
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Target: Bone tissue, Kidneys
Effect: Increases blood calcium levels by stimulating release of calcium from bone tissue and decrease of calcium loss in urine- causes formation of calcitriol (vit D) to absorb more in small intestine
Adrenal Cortex
Mineralcorticoids (e.g Aldosterone)
Target: Kidney
Effect: Regulates blood Na+/K+ levels by increasing urine output of K+ and decreasing output of NA+
Glucocorticoids (e.g Cortisol)
Target: Liver, Adipose CT, All cells
Effect: Participate in stress response- increase glucose levels available in blood
Gonadicorticoids (DHEA)
Target: Various body cells
Effect: Stimulates maturing and function of reproductive system
Adrenal Medulla
Target: Various Cells
Effect: Prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Sight: 1. Retina (cones and rods) 2.optic nerve (sends visual info from retina to brain) 3.
optic chiasm (decussation-primary visual cortex can get info from both eyes; travels
along the optic tract to the thalamus) 4. Lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus
(visual info is organized before being sent to the primary cortex) 5. Visual cortex (info is
processed and perception occurs)
Auditory: 1. Cochlear branch 2. Vestibulocochlear nerve 3. Medulla oblongata 4. Midbrain (reflexes in colliculi) 5. Thalamus 6. Primary auditory cortex in temporal lobe (perception)
Olfaction: 1. Olfactory nerve (dendrites in conchae interact with oderants) 2. Olfactory tract 3. Hypothalamus 4. Amygdala 5. Olfactory cortex (no synapses at thalamus **only special sense that doesn't make a pit stop)
Taste: 1. Primary neurons extend from gustatory cells through CN VII and IX 2. Synapse in medulla oblongata 3. Secondary neurons take signals to thalamus 3. Tertiary neurons take signals to the primary gustatory cortex in insula of cerebrum
Equilibrium: 1. Stereocilia of maculae or crista ampullaris are distorted by motion 2. Nerve signal initiated through vestibular branch 3. Vestibulocochlear nerve 4. Medulla oblongata or cerebellum 5. Medulla will integrate info to reflexive eye movement and cerebellum will integrate it for skeletal muscle movement 6. Eventually will go to the thalamus and cerebral cortex for awareness (primary somatosensory cortex i think)
(c) and say which region of the cerebral cortex will "decode" the impulse for perception.
Sight: phototransduction requires a pigment to absorb photons of light. When the pigment is split, it activates a second messenger, causing cation channels to close. Hyperpolarization occurs within the receptor cell, causing it to stop releasing a NT that typically inhibits the bipolar cells. The bipolar cell can now release NT to the ganglion cell, which can propagate a signal to the brain
Auditory: Sound waves enter the EAM and vibrate the tympanic membrane, which moves auditory ossicles, which vibrates the oval window. Oval window vibration creates waves in the perilymph of the scala vestibuli that deform the vestibular membrane, causing waves in the endolymph, which vibrates the basilar membrane. Where the basilar membrane moves depends on frequency of waves (higher frequency = closer to oval window, then later transmitted to the more posterior side of primary auditory cortex). Hair cells on the basilar membrane have the tips of stereocilia embedded in the tectorial membrane, and when they move, the tip links connecting the stereocilia cause ion channels to open, allowing influx of potassium. The base of the hair cells can then release NT to a primary neuron, which creates graded potentials, then action potentials in the cochlear branch of CN VIII.
Olfaction: olfactory receptor cells have hairs that contain chemoreceptors in their plasma membrane. When an odorant stimulates an olfactory receptor cell, a G-activated protein sequence commences, opening Ca2+ and Na+ channels, causing a graded potential. This is transduction from chemical to electrical. These potentials summate to an action potential that is propagated down the olfactory receptor cell and a NT is released at the terminal end. The transducer can make an AP because it is the CN
Taste: Tastants (a molecule) bind to receptors in gustatory cells, causing a depolarization event that depends on the receptor cell. This is transduction. Could be G protein or ion channels. The event causes local potentials which eventually reach a primary neuron that is part of CN VII or IX.
Equilibrium: Similar to hearing; otolithic membrane moves with head movement, causing mechanical opening of ion channels on hair cells. Changes in polarization cause graded potentials that summate in vestibular branch