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54 terms

Anatomy Chapter 3

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What are the three main parts of a eukaryotic cell?
plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
Plasma membranes consist of what three components?
proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol
What are the non polar parts of a phospholipid?
tail group
This is the only polar portion of a cholesterol molecule and it forms hydrogen bonds with the polar heads of phospholipids.
-OH group
These membrane enclosed compartments or organized aggregates perform special functions in cellular growth, maintenance and reproduction.
organelles
This organelle is comprised of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules.
cytoskeleton
This is comprised of a pair of centrioles and pericentriolar materials.
centrosome
One type of human cell (e.g. spermatozoa) is capable of movement because it has this type of structure made of microtubules.
flagella
This membranous organelle contains ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface, which synthesis proteins.
rough er
This is an organelle that modifies proteins produced elsewhere.
golgi body
These are small flattened curved membranous sacs with bulging edges containing fusing and exiting vesicles.
cisternae
This organelle contains strong oxidases that oxidize organic molecules?
peroxisomes
Which organelle recycles worn out organelles?
lysosomes
Proteasomes
degrade faulty cellular proteins
Mitochondria
generate ATP
Which of the following separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm?
nuclear membrane (envelope)
What is the major function of a histone protein?
help organize coiling of DNA
This is a long, maximally tightly coiled, molecule of DNA that contains genes-there are 46 in each body cell.
chromatid
This binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein during translation.
tRNA
This portion of a DNA segment does not code for a protein.
intron
This process describes the division of the cytoplasm.
cytokinesis
The function of mitosis is
produce new cells with equal genetic material as the parent cell
Which of the following is not a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
stores proteins with large hydrophobic portions
Which membrane-bound organelle recycles worn out organelles and carries out intracellular digestion?
lysosomes
Mitochondria are organelles that...
extract energy from food
mRNAs are first transcribed as very long molecules with both coding and non codon portions. The coding portions are called...
exons
This organelle modifies proteins produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
golgi body
Transport vesicles containing cargo and membrane proteins are constantly fusing and being formed from this organelle that adds non-amino acids groupings to to the proteins
golgi body
The chamber of this organelle contains oxidative enzymes involving oxygen and free radicals that would otherwise damage cytoplasmic proteins.
peroxisomes
Proteasomes are protein assemblies that...
degrade faulty cellular proteins
This structure assembles proteins for use in the cytoplasm of the cell
free ribosomes
The "beads on a string" model refers most appropriately to...
initial folding of DNA in chromatin structure
The three nucleotides that on mRNA that specify the position of a particular amino acid in a protein is specifically called a(n)
codon
Which of the following accounts for the fact that humans have only about 25,000 genes but make over 100,000 proteins....
alternative splicing generates different mRNAs from the same pre-mRNA
Tay-Sachs disease and other diseases where certain materials accumulate in the cells is caused by a defect in this organelle...
lysosome
The genes in this organelle are usually only inherited from the mother...
mitochondria
arise from blood-forming organs
leukemias
a cancer of the lymphatic tissue
lymphomas
arise from epithelial cells
carcinomas
arise from melanocytes, pigmented cells in the skin
melanomas
arise from muscle cells or connective tissues
sarcomas
anticodons are found on mRNA, but not tRNA
false
There are about 200 different cell types in the human body.
true
Cells are different because different cells contain different genes
false
Because elephants are larger, they have larger liver cells.
false
The glycocalix is always located on the cytoplasmic surface of plasma cell membranes.
false
programed cell death is called apoptosis
true
A spherical cell with a radius of 8um has a higher surface volume ratio than a spherical cell with a radius of 4um
false
If a nucleus is not seen in a cell of a prepared slide of sectioned tissue, it means that cell does not have a nucleus.
false
With respect to membrane orientation, the inside surface of the membrane of a vesicle is analogous to the outside surface of a cell.
true
Transmembrane proteins can act as channels or transporters
true
The membrane potential is negative on the outside membrane surface region relative to the inside membrane surface region.
false
Human sex cells (eggs and sperm) have half the number of chromosomes as other human cells in the body.
true
Proteins made on ribosomes bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum are destined for the cytoplasm whereas proteins made on free ribosomes will be found within vesicles, several organelles, membranes, or secretion products of the cell
false