US History Ch 20 & 21

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Terms in this set (...)

nativism
favoring the interests of native-born people over foreign-born people
isolationism
opposition to political & economic entanglements with other countries
communism
an economic & political system based on one-party government & state ownership of property
Red Scare
panic in US 1919; Communists cried out for a worldwide revolution that would abolish capitalism everywhere; A Communist party formed in the US
Palmer Raids
US Attorney General A Mitchell Palmer took action to combat this "red Scare", Palmer & Edgar Hoover hunted down suspected communists, socialists & anarchists - failed to turn up evidence of a revolutionary conspiracy
Saco Vanzetti Case
Sacco & Vanzetti, a shoemaker & a fish peddler, were Italian immigrants & anarchists, both had evaded draft during WW1, arrested for robbery & murder of a factory paymaster and his guard; evidence was circumstantial; jury found them guilty and sentenced them to death
KKK
KKK was devoted to "100% Americanism", 4.5 million "white male persons, native born gentile citizens"; believed in keeping blacks "in their place", destroying saloons, opposing unions, and driving Roman Catholics, Jews, & foreign-born people out of the country
Quota System
system that set limits on how many immigrants from various countries a nation will admit each year; goal was to cut sharply European immigration to the US & Japanese immigration
Fordney McCumber Tariff
set of regulations, enacted by Congress in 1922, that raised taxes on imports to record levels in order to protect American businesses against foreign competition
Teapot Dome Scandal
Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall's secret leasing of oil-rich public land to private companies in return for money and land
President Calvin Coolidge
Came after Hoover and before Harding
urban sprawl
the unplanned & uncontrolled spreading of cities into surrounding regions; the automobile liberated the isolated rural family, who could now travel to the city for shopping & entertainment. It also gave families the opportunity to vacation in new & faraway places. It allows both women and young to people to become more independent through increased mobility. It allowed workers to live miles from their jobs
Superficial Prosperity
most Americans believed prosperity would go on forever
Installment Plan
an arrangement in which a purchaser pays over an extended time, without having to put down much money at the time of purchase (credit)
Prohibition
period from 1920-1933 during which the 18th Amendment forbidding the manufacture & sale of alcohol was in force in the US
speakeasies
place where alcohol was sold and consumed illegally during prohibition
bootlegger
person who smuggled alcoholic beverages during prohibition
Scopes Trial
sensational 1925 court case in which the biology teacher John T Scopes was tried for challenging a Tennessee law that outlawed the teaching of evolution
Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald
became a model for a generation of young American women who wanted to break away from traditions & forget the hardships of the war years
women in the 20s
many women began to assert their independence, reject the values of the 19th century & demand the same freedom as men; women began to smoke cigarettes, drink in public, and talk openly about sex - actions that had not been appropriate before; marriage viewed as partnership
flapper
one of the free-thinking young women who embraced the new fashions & urban attitudes of the 20s; shorter dresses, dark black hair
double standard
a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women
radio
was the most powerful communications medium to emerge in the 1920s - radio networks had created shared national experience of hearing the news as it happened
Charles A. Lindbergh
made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic
George Gershwin
Jewish composer who became famous who merged popular concert music with American jazz, thus creating a new sound that was identifiably American
Sinclair Lewis
first American to win a Nobel Price in literature, wrote the novel Babbitt
F Scott Fitzgerald
coined the term "Jazz Age" to describe the 20s, revealed the negative side of the period's gaiety and freedom, portraying wealthy & attractive people leading imperiled lives in gilded surrounding
Edna St. Vincent Millay
wrote poems celebrating youth & a life of independence & freedom from traditional constraints
Ernest Hemingway
wounded in WW1, became known as the expatriate author, Sun Also Rises, criticized the glorification of war
James Weldon Johnson
poet, lawyer, NAACP executive secretary
Marcus Garvey
immigrant from Jamaica, believed that African Americans should build a separate society. His different, more radical message of black pride aroused the hopes of many, founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA); appealed to blakcs with a combination of spellbinding oratory, mass meetings, parades & a message of pride
Harlem Renaissance
flowering of African American artistic creativity during the 1920s, centered in the Harlem community of NYC
Claude McKay
novelist, poet & Jamaican immigrant, a major figure whose militant verses urged African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination
Langston Hughes
movement's best known poet; his poems described the difficult lives of working-class blacks
Zora Neale Hurston
her novels, short stories, poems and books of folklore portrayed the lives of poor, unschooled southern blacks - in her words "the greatest cultural wealth of the continent" - much of her work celebrated what she called the common art form - the simple folkways and values of people who had survived slavery through their ingenuity and strength
Paul Robeson
son of a one-time slave, became a major dramatic actor, struggled with the racism he experienced in the US and the indignities inflicted upon him because of his support of the Soviet Union
Louis Armstrong
young trumpet player, famous for his astounding sense of rhythm and his ability to improvise, Armstrong made personal expression a key part of jazz
Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington
a jazz pianist & composer, led his ten=piece orchestra at the Cotton Club
Bessie Smith
female blues singer, perhaps the outstanding vocalist of the decade