Research and Program Evaluation #700-750

The most valuable type of research is
a. always conducted using a factor analysis
b. conducted using the chi-square
c. the experiment, used to discover cause-and-effect relationships
d. the quasi-experiment
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In order for the professor of counselor education (see question 708) to conduct an experiment regarding his hypothesis he will need a(n) ________ and a(n) ________.the manipulated IV and biofeedback traininghypothesis testing is most closely related to the world ofR.A. Fisherthe null hypothesis suggests that there will not be a significant difference between the experimental group which received the iv and the control group which did not. Thus if the experiment in question 708 was conducted, the null hypothesis would suggest thatbiofeedback will not improve the board exam scoresThe hunch is known as the experimental or alternative hypothesis. The experimental hypothesis suggests that a difference will be evident between the control group and the experimental group (i.e., the group receiving the IV). Thus, if the experiment in question 708 were conducted, the experimental hypothesis would suggest thatthe biofeedback would raise board scoresFrom a purely statistics standpoint, in order to compare a control group to the experimental group, the researcher will need a _______a test of significanceWhen you see the letter P in relation to a test of significance it meansprobabilityin the social sciences the accepted probability level is usually.05 or lessp=.05 really means that A) five subjects were not included in the study B) there is only a 5% chance that the difference between the control group and the experimental groups is due to chance factors C) the level of significance is .01 D) no level of significance has been setB) there is only a 5% chance that the difference between the control group and the experimental groups is due to chance factorsP=.05 really means thatdifference truly exist; the experimenter will obtain the same results 95 times out of 100A study that would best rule out chance factors would have a significance level of P=___..001Type I and Type II errors are called ________ and _____________ respectivelyalpha ; betaa type I error occurs whenyou reject null when it is truea type II erroris also called a beta error and means youi accept null when it is falseAssume the experiment in question 708 is conducted. The results indicate that the biofeedback helped raise written board exam scores but in reality this is not the case. The researcher has made aType I errorA counselor educator decides to increase the sample size in her experiment. This willReduce type I and II errorsIf a researcher changes the significance level from .05 to .001 thenalpha errors decrease, however beta errors increaseA counselor believes that clients who receive assertiveness training will ask more questions in counseling classes. An experimental group receives assertiveness training while a control group does not. In order to test for significant differences between the groups the counselor should utilizethe students t testyour computation must ______ the number cited in the table in order to ______ the nullexceed; rejectThe researcher in question 727 now attempts a more complex experiment. One group receives no assertiveness training, a second group receives four assertiveness training sessions, and a third receives six sessions. The statistic of choice wouldANOVAIf the researcher in the previous question utilized two IVs then the statistic of choice would betwo way ANOVA or MANOVATo complete a t test you would consult a tabled value of t. In order to see if significant differences exist in an ANOVA you would consulta table for F valuesWhich level of significance would best rule out chance factors?.001when a researcher uses correlation, then there is no direct manipulation of the IV. a research might ask how IQ correlated with incidence of panic disorde.r again nothing manipulated just measured, in cases such as this a correlation coefficient will revealrelationship between IQ and panic disorderIf data indicate that students who study a lot get very high scores on state counselor licensing exams, then the correlation between study time and LPC exam scores would bepositivewhich of the following would most likely yield a perfect correlation of 1.00length in inches and length in centimetersa good guess would be that if you would correlate the length of CACREP graduates baby toes with their CPCE scores the result would be close to0.00Dr. X discovered that the correlation between therapists who hold NCC status and therapists who practice systematic desensitization is .90. A student who perused Dr. X's research told his fellow students that Dr. X had discovered that attaining NCC status causes therapists to become behaviorally oriented. The student is incorrect becausecorrelation does not imply causala behaviorist often utilizes N=1 which is called intensive experimental design. the first step in this approach would be totake a baseline measurein a new study the clients do not know whether they are receiving an experimental treatment for depression or whether they are part of control group. the is nevertheless, known to the researcher thus this is asingle blind studya large study at a major university age an experimental group of clients a new type of therapy that was intended to ameliorate test anxiety. the control group did not receive the new therapy. neither the clients nor the researchers knew which students received treatment this was adouble blind studyexperimental is to cause and effect as correlational is todegree of relationshipin a normal curve the mean, the median and the mode all fall precisely in the middle of the curve, from a graphical perspective the Social alled normal or gaussian curve looks likea symmetrical bellthe most common measures of central tendency are the mean median and mode. the mode isthe most frequently occurring score and least important central tendencya bimodal distribution has two modes graphically this looks likea camels back with two humpsin a basic curve or so called frequency polygon the point of maximum concentration is themodethe most useful measure of central tendency is themean often abbreviated by an X with a bar over itin a career counseling session an electrical engineer mentioned he has three jobs he has held. the first paid 10 an hour, the second paid 30 an hour. the third paid a higher rate of 50 per hour. the counselor responds that the client is averaging 30 per hour. the counselor is usingthe meanfrom a mathematical standpoint, the mean is merely the sum of the scores divided by the number of score.s the mean is misleading whenthe distribution is skewed and there are extreme scoreswhen a distribution of scores is not distributed normally, statisticians call ita skewed distributionthe median ismiddle score when data are arranged lowest to highest