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33 terms

Chemistry Chapter 4

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Solution
homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances
the ____ is dissolved in the ____
solute, solvent
Dissociation
Ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the solid
Electrolytes
ionic substances dissolved in water and conducts electricity
A non-electrolyte does____
not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water and does not conduct electricity
A strong electrolyte___
dissociates almost completely
A weak electrolyte____
dissociates impartially
strong acids and strong bases make ___
strong electrolytes
soluble ionic compounds are also called
salts
salts are ___
strong electrolytes
compounds containing NO₃⁻
soluble
compounds containing C₂H₃O₂⁻
soluble
compounds containing Cl⁻
soluble except compounds of Ag⁺, Hg₂²⁺, and Pb²⁺
compounds containing Br⁻
soluble except compounds of Ag⁺, Hg₂²⁺, and Pb²⁺
compounds containing I⁻
soluble except compounds of Ag⁺, Hg₂²⁺, and Pb²⁺
compounds containing SO₄²⁻
soluble except compounds of Sr²⁺, Ba²⁺, Hg₂²⁺, and Pb²⁺
compounds containing S²⁻
insoluble except compounds of NH⁴⁺, the alkali metal cations, and Ca²⁺, Sr²⁺, and Ba²⁺
compounds containing CO₃²⁻
insoluble except compounds of NH⁴⁺, and the alkali metal cations
compounds containing PO₄³⁻
insoluble except compounds of NH⁴⁺, and the alkali metal cations
compounds containing OH⁻
insoluble except compounds of the alkali metal cations, and NH₄⁺, Ca²⁺, Sr²⁺, and Ba²⁺
the seven strong acids
HCl, HBr, HI, HClO₃, HClO₄, HNO₃, H₂SO₄
the 8 strong bases
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)₂, Sr(OH)₂, Ba(OH)₂
complete equation
molecular equation
complete ionic equation
the strong electrolytes are written as ions
if every ion in a complete ionic equation is a spectator,
then no reaction occurs
Arrhenius defined acids as
substances that increase the concentration of H⁺ when dissolved in water
Bronsted and Lowry defined acids as
proton donors
Arrhenius defined bases as
substances that increase the concentration of OH⁻ when dissolved in water
Bronsted and Lowery defined bases as
proton acceptors
is water a good conductor?
no
when molecular compounds dissolve in water, only a limited number of ions are formed, and does not conduct electricty, except
NH₃(g) reacts with water to form NH₄⁺ and OH⁻ and HCl(g) forms H⁺(aq) and Cl⁻(aq)
weak acids use a ___ arrow
double
a substance with a solubility of less than 0.01 mol/L is regarded as being
insoluble