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PSYC 430: Read: Nolen-Hoeksema: Chapter 10
Terms in this set (132)
In adulthood, the brain continues to change in response to which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
An individual's health
An individual's lifestyle
Which of the following are neurodevelopmental disorders, a group of disorders that typically arise first in childhood? (Select all that apply.)
Autism spectrum disorders
Learning, communication, and motor disorders
Children who are diagnosed with ADHD have trouble with which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
Controlling their impulses
Accomplishing long-term goals
Which of the following are subtypes of ADHD in the DSM-5? (Select all that apply.)
Predominantly inattentive presentation
In terms of the age cutoff for a diagnosis of ADHD, which of the following reflects changes in the DSM-5?
The cutoff was changed from 7 to 12.
The last few decades have brought us new knowledge in how much the brain changes _____.
across the lifespan
Girls with ADHD tend to display primarily ______ features
Disorders involving brain dysfunction that typically arise in childhood are known as _____.
Adults diagnosed with ADHD as children are at increased risk for which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
Antisocial personality disorder
Which of the following statements is true of children diagnosed with ADHD?
They display a number of energetic and distraction-prone behaviors that are normal for all children, but to a much more severe degree.
Brain abnormalities in children with diagnoses of ADHD involve the prefrontal ____ , which is key to control of cognition and behavior.
There are _____ subtypes of ADHD in the DSM-5.
Siblings of children with ADHD are _____ more likely to have ADHD than siblings of children without the disorder.
3 to 4 times
A major change in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD is that the ____ limit for the onset of the symptoms was raised.
Which of the following is not a typical feature of parents of children diagnosed with ADHD?
Which is true of gender differences in ADHD diagnoses?
Boys are more than twice as likely as girls to be diagnosed with ADHD.
Children with ADHD are treated with ____ drugs, such as Ritalin, Dexedrine, and Adderall.
Symptoms of ADHD persist into adulthood for about ______ percent of people diagnosed with ADHD in childhood.
A ____ therapy for ADHD might involve putting stars on a chart every time that good behaviors are noticed, thereby earning privileges.
The _____ is smaller in volume in the brains of children diagnosed with ADHD.
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
Restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests
Deficits in social interactions and communications
ADHD is not strongly tied to genetic factors.
About 50 percent of children diagnosed with autism do not acquire useful ______.
Which of the following are associated with families of children with ADHD? (Select all that apply.)
Robert has been diagnosed with autism. His parents note that he does not originate his own language but simply repeats what he has heard. This is called _____.
It is thought that stimulants used for the treatment of ADHD increase levels of _____ in the synapses of the brain, enhancing release and inhibiting reuptake of this neurotransmitter.
One of the first things Connie's mother noticed before Connie was diagnosed with autism was that Connie _____.
would play with parts of toys
Jimmy gets a wooden nickel every time that he makes his bed at home. When he has saved up five of them, he can exchange them for trips to the zoo or the park. What type of therapy is being used here for ADHD?
Basil has been diagnosed with _____, but he has an extraordinary ability to play music, although he has never been instructed. He is known as a savant.
The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder utilizes ______ fundamental behavior domains.
For a diagnosis of autism, symptoms must have their onset in early ____.
What percent of children diagnosed with autism do not acquire useful speech?
The best predictors of the outcome of autism are development before the age of 6 and an IQ above 50.
language (or speech)
Which of the following is the best definition of echolalia?
Repeating what has just been said
In which DSM version is autism classified as a PDD?
Which of the following are true of children with autism in terms of play? (Select all that apply.)
They engage in bizarre, repetitive behaviors.
They play with a part of a toy rather than the whole toy itself.
In the DSM-5, autism is classified as a(n) _____.
autism spectrum disorder
A number of people diagnosed with autism have extraordinary abilities. They are sometimes referred to as ____.
The concordance rate for autism in monozygotic twins is about _____ percent.
In regard to a diagnosis of autism, one criteria is that the onset of symptoms must be _____.
in early childhood.
Which symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are improved by medication? (Select all that apply.)
The best predictors of the outcome of autism is language development before age _____ and an IQ above 50.
Match the functional domain with its description.
Conceptual = Reading, writing, reasoning, and problem-solving correct
Social = Awareness and understanding of others' experiences
Practical = Self-care
In the DSM-IV-TR, autism was classified as a(n) _____.
pervasive developmental disorder
In order to receive a diagnosis of intellectual disability disorder, a person needs to get _____ on an intelligence test.
70 or below
In which version of the DSM is autism classified as an autism spectrum disorder?
There are many ____ causes of intellectual disability disorder, including chromosomal and gestational disorders and prenatal exposure to toxins.
Anne is 4 years old and has been diagnosed with autism. She has a newborn brother, Tad. How likely is Tad to also have a diagnosis of autism?
50 times more likely than if Anne did not have autism.
Nearly 300 genes affecting brain development and functioning have been implicated in which disorder?
Intellectual disability disorder
Which of the following are medications used to control the symptoms of autism? (Select all that apply.)
Which of the following are true of phenylketonuria? (Select all that apply.)
It is treated with a special diet.
It can cause intellectual disability.
It is carried by a recessive gene.
The diagnostic criteria for intellectual developmental disorder involves deficits in which of the following domains? (Select all that apply.)
Which of the following are true of Tay-Sachs disease? (Select all that apply.)
It involves degeneration of the nervous system.
It is carried by a recessive gene.
It occurs primarily in Jewish populations.
Individuals with intellectual disability generally have scores of two standard deviations below the mean IQ score of the general population of ____.
One of the best-known causes of intellectual development disorder is ____ syndrome, which occurs when chromosome 21 is present in triplicate rather than in duplicate.
Which of the following are biological causes of intellectual disability disorder? (Select all that apply.)
Prenatal exposure to toxins
Which of the following are typical characteristics of Down syndrome? (Select all that apply.)
Small nose, ears, mouth, and head size
Intellectual development disorder
Nearly 300 genes affecting brain development and functioning have been implicated in the development of intellectual disability disorder.
Fragile X syndrome is caused by
the tip of the X chromosome breaking off.
Which of the following is a genetically transmitted metabolic disorder that causes intellectual development disorder because a child is unable to metabolize phenylalanine?
All of following are characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome except
an IQ of 100 or lower.
In Tay-Sachs disease, there is a progressive degeneration of the ____ system, leading to mental and physical deterioration.
Rapidly moving a baby's head causes brain damage and is called _____.
shaken baby syndrome
Down syndrome is also known as _____.
Children with intellectual disability are more likely to come from what kind of socioeconomic background?
Which is true of those with Down syndrome?
Their life expectancy is shorter than average.
The ____ antipsychotics are sometimes used to reduce aggressiveness and self-injurious behaviors in people with intellectual disability disorder.
Which of the following are true of fragile X syndrome? (Select all that apply.)
t affects primarily males.
It is an intellectual disability disorder.
____ strategies that involve rewarding positive actions and reducing negative ones are often utilized in people diagnosed with intellectual disability disorder to better integrate them into the community.
Children whose mothers abuse alcohol during pregnancy are at risk for ____ ____ ____.
fetal alcohol syndrome
Which are documented outcomes of early interventional programs for intellectual disability?
Improved home environments
More responsive and persistent mothers
____ baby syndrome involves bleeding in and around the brain or behind the eyes, which can lead to seizures, partial or total blindness, paralysis, intellectual development disorder, or death.
Which accurately describes current thinking on the practice of mainstreaming?
The practice is controversial, with disagreement regarding its effectiveness.
Low socioeconomic status, having parents who do not read to their children, and poverty are all _____ factors that might exacerbate intellectual disability disorder.
Many adults with intellectual disability disorder live in ____ ____, where they receive assistance in the tasks of daily living.
Drug therapy is not typically used for people diagnosed with intellectual disability disorder.
The DSM-5 category of specific ____ disorder includes deficits in reading, written language, and mathematics.
_____ is one behavioral strategy that can be used with children diagnosed with intellectual disability disorder.
The ____ disorders involve persistent difficulties in the acquisition and use of language and other means of interaction.
Which is true of successful early intervention programs for intellectual disability?
The programs benefit both children with intellectual disabilities and their guardians.
_____ factors linked to learning disorders include lead poisoning, birth defects, sensory deprivation, and low socioeconomic group membership
Children who are mainstreamed are educated
in regular classrooms
Which of the following represent the different motor disorders in the DSM-5? (Select all that apply.)
Stereotypic movement disorder
Developmental coordination disorder
Persistent motor or vocal tic disorder
Caleb is a young adult with an intellectual disability disorder. His parents have decided he needs help with daily living tasks. They will most likely recommend _____ for Caleb.
a group home
Andy has multiple motor and vocal tics and sometimes shouts obscenities in church and the classroom. These behaviors have persisted for over a year and began when he was 13. His most likely diagnosis is _____.
In which of the following areas might someone with a specific learning disorder be diagnosed as having a deficit? (Select all that apply.)
Which actions would typically be repeated by someone with stereotypic movement disorder? (Select all that apply.)
Which of the following are categories of communication disorders? (Select all that apply.)
Social communication disorder
Roscoe has been diagnosed with a motor disorder. He has difficulties with balance, and his coordination is more like that of a 3 year old, but he is 6.The most likely diagnosis is _____.
developmental coordination disorder
Mitch has been diagnosed with several learning disorders. Which of the following are environmental factors that may have created the risk for this diagnosis?
The DSM-5 identifies _____ different motor disorders.
Which of the following DSM-5 categories describes disorders with typical onset late in life, caused by underlying medical conditions, and involving perceptual disturbances, and difficulties in planning and organizing and/or the ability to identify objects?
Which of the following is true of Tourette's disorder?
Multiple motor and one or more vocal tics are present.
The main symptom of major neurocognitive disorders is ____ decline severe enough to interfere in daily living.
In what way do the repetitive behaviors typical of stereotypic movement disorder differ from tics?
The individual engages in them for an extended period of time
Which of the following best describe aphasia? (Select all that apply.)
An inability to name people
An inability to name objects
_____ coordination disorder is diagnosed when motor performance is substantially below what is expected for a specific age.
Which of the following best represent palilalia? (Select all that apply.)
Repeating sounds over and over again
Saying the same word repeatedly
_____ factors linked to learning disorders include lead poisoning, birth defects, sensory deprivation, and low socioeconomic group membership.
Which task would be challenging for people with impaired executive functions?
Planning and cooking a meal
Which of the following are characteristic of symptoms of major and minor neurocognitive disorders? (Select all that apply.)
They arise most often late in life.
They arise from medical conditions.
On average, a person with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease lives _____ after diagnosis.
8 to 10 years
Which of the following are symptoms of major neurocognitive disorder? (Select all that apply.)
Aphasia and apraxia
Which of the following are brain abnormalities found in people with Alzheimer's disease? (Select all that apply.)
Neurofibrillary tangles made up of tau
Plaques that are deposits of beta-amyloid
Emily has a neurocognitive disorder. She refers to a cup as "a thing you drink out of." The term that describes this cognitive deficit is ______.
____ factors appear to predispose some people to the brain changes seen in Alzheimer's disease.
Craig has a neurocognitive disorder. When his father says "go to sleep," Craig says, "sleep, sleep, sleep, sleep, sleep, sleep, sleep." The term for this is _____.
Medications used to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease tend to enhance levels of which neurotransmitter?
Most people with major NCD experience a loss of ____ functions, those brain functions that involve planning and completing complex behaviors.
Ella recently suffered a stroke, and she is unable to pay attention and has slow processing of information. Her most likely diagnosis is _____.
vascular neurocognitive disorder
The early onset type of Alzheimer's disease _____.
tends to progress more quickly than late onset
Hannah suffered a stroke, which means that _____.
an area of her brain was damaged due to the blockage of blood flow or to bleeding
Neurofibrillary ____ are common in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease but uncommon in normal brains.
Vascular neurocognitive disorders often occur after a large ____ or an accumulation of smaller ones.
Which is true of genetic links to Alzheimer's disease?
Several genes seem to be linked to the development of the disease.
A neurocognitive disorder involving round structures that develop in the brain is _____.
Lewy body disease
What percent of chronic alcohol abusers have neurocognitive disorders?
Which of the following is true of vascular NCD?
It is a neurocognitive disorder.
Who of the following is statistically more likely to be diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder?
An elderly woman
A ____ is sudden damage to an area of the brain due to the blockage of blood flow or to bleeding.
Which of the following are true of the Nun Study? (Select all that apply.)
It is a longitudinal study.
It involved studying the nuns' brains.
Which of the following are possible factors associated with vascular neurocognitive disorder? (Select all that apply.)
High blood pressure
A condition in which a person suffers from recent memory loss, has a clouding of attention, is disoriented, and is unable to focus is _____.
Lewy body disease is the ______ most common type of progressive neurocognitive disorder.
ICU/CCU psychosis involves _____.
patients who experience delirium because of sensory isolation
Which of the following are causes of neurocognitive disorders? (Select all that apply.)
Which are important to treating delirium? (Select all that apply.)
Discontinue drugs that may be making the delirium worse
Treat any associated medical conditions
Which of the following is true with regard to gender differences in neurocognitive disorders?
More women than men are affected.
What exactly was studied in the Nun Study?
____ is characterized by disorientation, recent memory loss, and a clouding of attention usually caused by an underlying medical condition.
Delirium may be the result of a person's medical disorder or the effect of medications. It also may result from ____ ____.
Providing a reassuring atmosphere filled with familiar personal belongings, such as family photographs and the person's own clothing, can help patients prone to delirium be less agitated and feel more secure and in control.
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