How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

115 terms

Chapter 1: The Flowering Seed Plants & Chapter 2: The Stucture and Function of Flowers

Review of Chapters 1 and 2 (The Review Sections of each chapter) located on Pgs. 18 & 32
STUDY
PLAY
Biology
The study of living things
Botany
The study of plants
Zoology, Human Anatomy and Physiology, and Botany
The three broad divisions of biology
Man is totally dependent on plants, directly or indirectly, for food; plants and plant products are also essential in medicine and industry
The Importance of Plants
Trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs (woody and herbaceous)
How land plants may be grouped according to the size and type of the stem
Taproot and Fibrous
The two main kinds of root systems
Annuals: One growing season; Biennials: Two growing seasons; Perennials: Live year to year and bloom each season
The difference between annuals, biennials, and perennials
Wheat, corn, and rice
The three most important cereal crops
Opposite, alternate, whorled, rosette
Four ways in which leaves may be arranged on a stem
Structural tissue, vascular tissue, meristematic tissue
The three main types of plant tissue
Epidermal, cork, parenchyma, support and strengthening tissue
Four types of structural tissue
Xylem, phloem
Two types of vascular tissue
Cambium
One of the most important types of meristematic tissue
Parallel, pinnate, palmate
Three types of venation
Cell membrane and cell wall
The parts of a plant cell that separate its contents from surrounding environment
Nucleus
The part of a plant that controls the cell's activities
Chloroplasts
The structures in a plant cell that carry out photosynthesis
Tendrils, spines or insect trapping leaves
Two examples of specials leaves
Biology
The study of living things
Organisms
Living things
Habitat
Regions where particular organisms normally live
Botany
The study of plants
Zoology
The study of animals
Woody Plants
A plant having hard lignified tissues or woody parts especially stems
Herbaceous Plant
A plant lacking a permanent woody stem
Angiosperm
Flowering seed plants
Legume
Member of the Pea Family
Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria
Converts nitrogen from ammonia into nitrates
Denitrifying Bacteria
Convert unused nitrates back into the atmosphere
Nitrifying Bacteria
Provides nitrates to the soil from decomposing plants and animals
Dicot
Two cotyledons per seed
Monocot
One cotyledon per seed
Cereals
Man developed grasses
Forage Grasses
Grasses livestock is raised on
Turf Grasses
Grass that covers lawns, athletic fields, golf courses, and playgrounds
Stolon
A creeping stem that grows above the ground
Sheath
The area in which the plant grows from
Hardwood
Dense, hard wood
Deciduous
Able to lose their leaves in fall
System
group of structures designed to function together as a unit to perform a particular job for an organism
Organ
A structure within a system which has a definite form and performs a definite function or functions for the system
Tissue
Living material which is constructed in such a way as to perform a particular task for the organs of an organism.
Root System
Underground, anchoring the plant, functions in the absorption of nutrients and storage of food
Shoot System
Above ground, holds up leaves towards the sun for manufacturing food, and providing for the production of flowers, fruits, and seeds.
Blade
Flat, green portion of a leaf
Petiole
Leafstalk
Midrib
Major Vein
Leaflet
Each small blade on a compound leaf
Nodes
Point at which leaves grow from the stem.
Xylem
Transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the leaves
Phloem
Transports food manufactured on the leaves downward
Sap
Sweet liquid found within the vascular tissue of plants
Vascular Cambium
Produces new vascular tissue
Cork Cambium
Produces new cork tissue
Stomata
The lower epidermis of leaves
Guard Cells
Expand and contract in order to open and close each stoma
Leaf Hairs
The hairlike structure covering the epidermis
Transpiration
The passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere
Mesophyll
The place where most of the photosynthesis takes place, middle portion of the leaf
Venation
The pattern of the veins within leaves
Cell
The basic structural unit of all living things
Cytoplasm
Serves as fluid for the many molecules and organelles
Organelles
Little organs that make up the cell
Chloroplasts
Use the light of the sun to manufacture food
Chlorophyll
The green pigment which gives plants their color and enables them to capture the energy of the sun
Autotroph
Producers
Heterotroph
Consumers
Photosynthesis
The process whereby a plant's chloroplasts capture the radiant energy of sunlight and convert it into the chemical energy of food is called photosynthesis
Glucose
A simple sugar
Sucrose
Table sugar
Cellulose
A complex carbohydrate made up of long chain of glucose molecules
Starch
A long, chain-like molecule consisting of thousands of glucose molecules linked together
Cellular Reparation
Plant cells obtain energy by oxidizing sugars, or combining them with oxygen in a chemical reaction roughly comparable to burning.
Abscission Layer
Cuts leaves from the stem
Turgor Pressure
The water within guard cells
Wilting
Occurs when there is a high rate of transpiration
Sepals
Leaf-like structures attached to the edge of the receptacle
Petals
The most conspicuous part of the flower
Corolla
The petals
Stamen
The organs that produce the pollen
Filament
A slender, elongated stalk
Anther
An enlarger structure at the tip of the filament; produces pollen
Pollen
Contains sperm for the flower
Pistil and Ovary
The central structure in a flower; the swollen base of a pistil
Style and Stigma
The stalklike structure that connects the ovary to the tip of the pistil; Part of the flower which receives the pollen grains at the time of pollination
Bracts
The bright red leaved that appear to be petals; special leaves
Inflorescence
Clusters of flowers
Photoperiodism
When plants require a definite period of light and darkness before they will flower
Horticulturist
agriculture technician
Fruit
Fully ripened ovary
Pollination
The transfer of pollen
Hybrid
Cross-pollination that occurs between two plants of different kinds
Nectar
sweet-tasting, watery liquid produced by plants
Fertilization
When the ovules begin developing into seeds only after a sperm cell brought by pollen grain fuses with the egg cell within the ovule.
Sexual Reproduction
When sperm and egg unite
Legume
Simple fruits that consist of a pod enclosing several seeds
Bran
Shell-like fruit covering that can be removed only by milling
Chaff
Also called husk, can be removed easily
Germination
The sprouting of a seed
Dormancy
A period of inactivity
Endosperm
Makes 85% of the kernel; is used in making white flour
Help plants reproduce after their kind by forming reproductive cells; produce fruits and seeds
The Purpose of Flowers
Manufacture food for the plant by means of photosynthesis
The Purpose of Leaves
Hold up the plant's leaves and flowers
The Purpose of Steams
Anchors the plant to the soil, absorbs water and minerals and stores food
The Purpose of Roots
Ordinary leaves have petioles, whereas sessile leaves do not
How are sessile leaves different from ordinary leaves?
Simple leaves have only one blade per petiole; compound leaves have more than one blade per patiole
How are simple leaves different from compound leaves?
To protect and waterproof the stem
What is the purpose of cork tissue?
To make and store food
What is the purpose of parenchyma tissue?
Xylem tissue transports water and minerals upward to the leaves; phloem tissue transport food manufactured down to the rest of the plant
Explain the function of xylem and phloem tissue
To provide covering and protection for both the upper and lower leaf surfaces
Explain the purpose of a leaf's epidermis
The veins contain the vascular tissue and transport food, sap and minerals throughout the leaf.
What is the purpose of leaf veins?
To store food materials, fluid substances, and minerals
State the purpose of vacuoles
When the abscission layer forms, the chlorophyll in the leaf begins to deteriorate, allowing other pigments that had previously been hidden by the chlorophyll become visible
What causes leaves to turn different colors in autumn?
When water is being lost faster than it can be replenished, the guard cells lose turgor pressure and close the stomata. This reduces the rate of transpiration and water loss, helping to conserve water
How do guard cells help conserve water