Causes of the American Revolution

EO 2, Part A
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Boston Tea Party
A raid on three British ships in Boston Harbor in which Boston colonists, disguised as Mohawk Indians, threw several hundred chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against the British Tea Act.
Coercive Acts
Also known as the Intolerable Acts. Several British laws designed to punish colonists for their role in the Boston Tea Party.
French and Indian War
This struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years' War.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, in order to avoid conflict with the Native Americans.
Stamp Act
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies.
Writs of Assistance
Part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo for smuggled goods without giving a reason.
Sons of Liberty
Patriot group that organized protests and petitions against the British and its policies. Led by leaders such as Sam Adams, John Hancock and Paul Revere.
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the Revolution in which British soldiers went after the stored weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
Boycott
The refusal to buy or sell certain products or services.
Repeal
To cancel a law.
Olive Branch Petition
An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll.
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies.
Militia
An army of citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency.
Minuteman
A member of the Massachusetts colony militia who could quickly be ready to fight the British.
Quartering Act
Required colonists to provide food and shelter to British troops stationed in the colonies.
Boston Port Bill
Closed down Boston Harbor until the damage from the tea party was paid for in full.
Administration of Justice Act
Part of the Intolerable Act where royal officials of Massachusetts were tried in Britain or other colonies - not in Massachusetts.
Quebec Act
Act that was meant to organize the colonies, but instead just cut off western land claims of Massachusetts - meant to punish the colonists.
Massachusetts Government Act
Act in which Massachusetts became a Royal Colony and appointed General Gage the new governor.
Parliament
The lawmaking body of British government
Continental Congress
The legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution.
French and Indian War Debt
The reason Parliament gave for raising taxes on the colonies. Parliament felt that the colonies should help pay for their own protection.
"Taxation without Representation"
Rallying cry of the Sons of Liberty because the Stamp Act was placed on them by a Parliament in which they had no elected representation.
Food and Provisions
The colonies agreed to send these to Massachusetts to account for the closing of Boston Harbor.
Coerce
To force
Intolerable
Too much too bear, too harsh.
The Perfect Crisis
How the Sons of Liberty described the conflict between Boston and the British Redcoats. The crisis created a situation wherein more people joined the Sons of Liberty.
Tax
Fees paid to the government for specific actions (such as purchases, sales, printing, property, etc.)
Smuggle
To trade goods in violation of laws (usually to avoid taxes).
Petition
A formal request
Propoganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
Natural Rights
Rights that belong to all people from birth.
Preamble
The introduction to an official document.
Patriot
American colonists who fought for independence from Great Britain during the Revolutionary War
Loyalist
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.
Ally
A nation that joins another nation in some common effort, such as winning a war.
George III
King of England before and during the American Revolution
John Adams
Defended the redcoats at the Boston Massacre trial.
Sam Adams
A founder of the Sons of Liberty