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features of effective vaccines
safe, protective, sustainted protection, induces neutralizing antibodies or t cells, practical,
what is herd immunity
protection is conferred on the unvaccinated in a population when a certain threshold number of individuals is vaccinated
what is passive immunization
new new immune response, immediate protection, no memory or secondary response. Temporary, uses preformed immune components, used reactively, occurs naturally with maternal antibodies
what is active immunization
delayed protection, memory, secondary response, permanent, used proactively, occurs naturally with infection
what diseases are protected against by subunit or recombinant vaccines
hep a and b, h. influenzae type b
what does alum do
turns proteins into particles to make them easier to phagocytize. The only adjuvant approved for use in humans, activates inflammatory immune responses (esp. IL1)
want does vaccination with the cowpox virus do
elicits neutralizing antibodies that cross react with antigens of the small pox virus
what are contraindication of attenuated vaccines
must not be used in pregnant or immunocompromised individuals
give an example of conjugate vaccines
protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against hemophilus influenza type b.
what is the greatest risk of common adverse events with vaccines
active disease in immunocompromised patients with live virus vaccines
what are other common adverse events with vaccines
fever in 5-50% of pts. Pain and swelling. Anaphylaxis esp to egg proteins. Encepholopathy, convulsions, benign ITP, febrile seizures
what is a risk of mmr and dpt
increased risk of febrile seizures although not associated with any long term adverse consequences
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