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25 terms

Vaccine

Hermel Vaccine Immunity
STUDY
PLAY
features of effective vaccines
safe, protective, sustainted protection, induces neutralizing antibodies or t cells, practical,
what does an effective vaccination program provide
herd immunity
what is herd immunity
protection is conferred on the unvaccinated in a population when a certain threshold number of individuals is vaccinated
what is passive immunization
new new immune response, immediate protection, no memory or secondary response. Temporary, uses preformed immune components, used reactively, occurs naturally with maternal antibodies
what is active immunization
delayed protection, memory, secondary response, permanent, used proactively, occurs naturally with infection
what is hemolytic disease of a newborn treated with
passive immuniztion with anti-Rh-IgG
what diseases are protected against by live attenuated viruses
smallpox, measles, mumps, rubells
what diseases are protected against by killed vaccines
influenze
what diseases are protected against by subunit or recombinant vaccines
hep a and b, h. influenzae type b
what diseases are protected against by toxoids
tetanus
what do adjuvants do
increase the efficay of vaccines
what does alum do
turns proteins into particles to make them easier to phagocytize. The only adjuvant approved for use in humans, activates inflammatory immune responses (esp. IL1)
want does vaccination with the cowpox virus do
elicits neutralizing antibodies that cross react with antigens of the small pox virus
what is a toxoid
a toxin that has been modified to be immunogenic but no longer toxic
explain live attenuated vaccines
contain replication competent but avirulent viruses.
what are contraindication of attenuated vaccines
must not be used in pregnant or immunocompromised individuals
what are conjugate vaccines
a carrier hapten reaction.
give an example of conjugate vaccines
protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against hemophilus influenza type b.
what is an example and mode of a post exposure vaccine
rabies, immune serum plus vaccine
give an example of cancer vaccination
hbv (hepatocellular carcinoma) and hpv
what is the greatest risk of common adverse events with vaccines
active disease in immunocompromised patients with live virus vaccines
what are other common adverse events with vaccines
fever in 5-50% of pts. Pain and swelling. Anaphylaxis esp to egg proteins. Encepholopathy, convulsions, benign ITP, febrile seizures
what is a risk of mmr and dpt
increased risk of febrile seizures although not associated with any long term adverse consequences
what kind of mercury is in thimerosol
ethyl mercury
what happens to incidence of vaccine goes down
incidence of disease goes up