Terms in this set (58)
A term that refers to the process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
A vertical plane that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above, A line that separates two man made divisions of the land (enclave, enclaves, land locked countries)
A force that unites people and countries
Cultural and political forces such as linguistic minorities, separatist, and fringe groups—that pull away from and weaken an existing nation-state
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Colonies are territories controlled by other countries, Areas acquired through conquest and immigration
An economic system controlled by strong, centralized government, which usually focuses on industrial goods. With little attention paid to agriculture and consumer goods.
A state that possesses a rougly circular, oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.
A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.
the boundaries between states are set by ethical differences, especially those based on language and/or religion. Also called Cultural Boundaries.
the portion of a country that contains its economic, political, intellectual, and cultural focus.
A process of transition as a country attempts to move from an authoritarian form of government to a democratic one.
An effort to shirft responsibility of domestic programs to the states in order to decrease the size &activites of the fed. govt; some states have attempted to shift responsibilities further to local govts
Disputes between 2 or more states where the position of the boundary is in question.
A disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession or control of land
In political geography, disagreement over the control or use of shared resources, such as boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing grounds.
In political geography, a disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration.
Subfield of geography that deals with various spatial aspects of voting systems, voting behaviors, and voter representation.
A state whose territory is decidedly long and narrow in that its length is a least six times greater than its average width - Chile for example
any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region, countries surrounded or almost surrounded by another country.
a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state.
When ethnic groups see themselves as an individual nation and belive that they deserve their own state.
A European Union document not yet ratified, which incorporates a charter of fundamental rights; merges the judicial, economic, and defense aspects of the EU; establishes the European Council; and raises the number of seats in Parliament, among other things
European Monetary Union
the agreement among the participating member states of the European Union to adopt a single hard currency and monetary system.
..., an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention., A capital city placed in a remote or peripheral area for economic, strategic, or symbolic reasons.
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
no longer exists-boundaries replaced them. A zone where no state exercises complete political control; a tangible geographic area
A national or state boundary drawn as imaginary straight lines on the map rather than following geographic features. The long, straight border between Canada and the United states is an example of a geometric boundary.
Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarre or unusual shapes to favor one party.
(Friedrich Ratzel) (organic theory) study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. States can be viewed as living organisms that need to consume other territories to survive. Gained a negative reputation when Hitler and the Nazis embraced geopolitics to justify their right for lebensraum (living space) because of their racial superiority.
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
Complex social organizations such as governments, economies, and education systems, A set of rules, known and shared by the community, that structure political interactions in particular ways.
type of boundary within a state, for administrative purposes or to mark off cultural regions
A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its nationals living in a neighboring state., A state or national policy of reclaiming lost lands or those inhabited by people of the same ethnicity in another nation-state.
median- line principle
statement in UNCLOS declaring that when there is not enough water for each country on opposite sides of the sea to have 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, the two or more countries involved will divide the water evenly
independent states that are small in both area and population.
An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion
A rule by which the design of new electoral boundaries, must where possible, create electoral districts which have a majority population of some group which is a national minority
area in which the majority of the constituents in the district are racial or ethnic minorities. used to sway electoral votes
a state that has more than one dominant region in terms of economics or politics (e.g., US, South Africa)
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state. South Africa, which encloses Lesotho and is perforate by it is an example
Challenged the heartland theory in Nicholas Spykman's book "The Geography of Peace," written in 1944; argued that the Eurasion rim, not its heart, held the key to global power
Five permanent members( US, UK, France, China, USSR) with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values, zones of great cultural complexity containing many small cultural groups who find refuge in the isolation created by rough terrain
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
devolutionary events most often occur on the margins of the state, where distance, remoteness, and peripheral location promote devolution, especially if water, desert, or mountains separate the area from the center of power and neighbor nations may support separatist objectives.
A group of people with a common political identity who do not have a territoriality defined, sovereign country of their own.
A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. The European Union is one such organization
a state's geographic shape which can have a decisive impact on its spatial cohesion and political viability
An individual or group attempt to identify and establish control over a clearly defined territory considered partially or wholly an exclusive domain; the behavior associated with the defense of the home territory.
"third wave" of democratization
a wave of democratization that is characterized by the defeat of dictatorial or totalitarian rulers in South America, Eastern Europe, and some parts of Africa.
Informal term denoting the main areas in which the EU has worked since the Maastricht Treaty. 1. the traditional involvement in trade and other economic matters 2. cooperation in justice and home affairs 3. the desire to create a Common Foreign and Security Policy which is the most visionary and controversial aspect of the EU today
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials