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Spinal Cord

Function: motor and sensory information, reflexes
Dysfunction: paralysis, osteoporosis, spasticity


Function: breathing, digestion, heart function
Dysfunction: paralysis of throat, loss of taste, acid reflux, drooling


Function: motor control, consciousness and sleep, dreaming, posture
Dysfunction: control bladder to a certain point, blood clots, breathing troubles

Reticular Formation

Function: motor and cardiovascular control, pain, sleep and consciousness
Dysfunction: narcolepsy, lesions


Function: senses transported to higher brain, sleep/consciousness
Dysfunction: motor, sensory and emotional problems, balance and sleep, impairment


Function: coordination, memory, leanring, body movement
Dysfunction: bad balance and coordination, tremor, dizzy, weak in legs


Function: store new memories (short term), emotional response, navigation, spatial organization
Dysfunction: Alzheimers, Epilepsy, brain swelling, deficencey of oxygen to cells


Function: social and emotional processing, aggression and feaar
Dysfunction: requires soc and emotional stimulation to dev normally, autism, soc anxiety if dev poorly

Pituitary Gland

Function: growth and sex hormones
Dysfunction: tumors, hyper/hrposecretion (too much/too little growth of cells)


Function: Autonomic, endocrine homeostasis
Dysfunction: tumor, hyperthyroidism

Temporal Lobe

Function: auditory, language reception, memory
Dysfunction: ADHD, Epilepsy

Parietal Lobe

Function: pain, sense/touch
Dysfunction: right/left confusion, dress/wash problems of self

Occipital Lobe

Function: visual cortex, color, motion perception, dreams come from
Dysfunction: color and movement, halucinations, illusions

Frontal Lobe

Function: emotion, problem solving, impulse, facial expressions
Dysfunction: mental flexibility, social up or down, easily distracted

Prefrontal Cortex

Function: mediate conflicting thoughts, choices, predict future, social control
Dysfunction: personality and behavioral change, bad decisions

Corpus Callosum

Function: facilitate communication b/w hemispheres, eye movement, sensory and arousal
Dysfunction: incomplete or no dev leads to difficulty of understanding (ex. sarcasm)

7 Rules of Brain Plasticity

1. Brain must be alert and engaged to change
2. Positive reinforcement strengthens the connections b/w neurons
3. neurons that fire together wire together
4. Repetition in incremental steps is key to make lasting change; initial change is temporary
5. Memory is crucial for learning and can be improved
6. Motivation is key - right stress, challenging but not too much
7. Brain Plasticity can be positive or negative






memory, movement, learning, emotions, focus to eliminate distractions (attention)


sleep/wake cycle, mood and arousal, no production - depression


alertness and arousal

GABA (gamma aminbutynic acid)

inhibitory neuron


memory, too much - headaches


nerve cell, basic building block of nervous sys


neurons bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impluses


neurons extension that passes messages to glands, muscles or neurons

Myelin Sheath

protects axon of neuron


level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse


connection b/w axon tip and dendrite or cell body of receiving neuron


chemical messengers that cross b/w neurons

Central Nervous Sys

brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous Sys

sensory and motor neurons that connect central nervous sys to body

Sensory Neurons

neurons that carry incoming info from receptors to brain and spinal cord

Motor Neurons

neurons that carry outgoing info from brain to muscles and glands

Sympathetic Nervous System

arouses the body, mobilizing energy in stressful situation

Parasympathetic Nervous System

calms the body, conserves energy

Brain Stem

core of brain, oldest part, responsible for automatic survival functions

Limbic System

neural sys associated w/ emotions and drives

Broca's Area

controls language expression; speech

Wernicke's Area

controls language reception; language comprehension

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