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41 terms

Psychology Chapter 2 Bio Final

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Spinal Cord
Function: motor and sensory information, reflexes
Dysfunction: paralysis, osteoporosis, spasticity
Medulla
Function: breathing, digestion, heart function
Dysfunction: paralysis of throat, loss of taste, acid reflux, drooling
Pons
Function: motor control, consciousness and sleep, dreaming, posture
Dysfunction: control bladder to a certain point, blood clots, breathing troubles
Reticular Formation
Function: motor and cardiovascular control, pain, sleep and consciousness
Dysfunction: narcolepsy, lesions
Thalamus
Function: senses transported to higher brain, sleep/consciousness
Dysfunction: motor, sensory and emotional problems, balance and sleep, impairment
Cerbellum
Function: coordination, memory, leanring, body movement
Dysfunction: bad balance and coordination, tremor, dizzy, weak in legs
Hippocampus
Function: store new memories (short term), emotional response, navigation, spatial organization
Dysfunction: Alzheimers, Epilepsy, brain swelling, deficencey of oxygen to cells
Amygdala
Function: social and emotional processing, aggression and feaar
Dysfunction: requires soc and emotional stimulation to dev normally, autism, soc anxiety if dev poorly
Pituitary Gland
Function: growth and sex hormones
Dysfunction: tumors, hyper/hrposecretion (too much/too little growth of cells)
Hypothalamus
Function: Autonomic, endocrine homeostasis
Dysfunction: tumor, hyperthyroidism
Temporal Lobe
Function: auditory, language reception, memory
Dysfunction: ADHD, Epilepsy
Parietal Lobe
Function: pain, sense/touch
Dysfunction: right/left confusion, dress/wash problems of self
Occipital Lobe
Function: visual cortex, color, motion perception, dreams come from
Dysfunction: color and movement, halucinations, illusions
Frontal Lobe
Function: emotion, problem solving, impulse, facial expressions
Dysfunction: mental flexibility, social up or down, easily distracted
Prefrontal Cortex
Function: mediate conflicting thoughts, choices, predict future, social control
Dysfunction: personality and behavioral change, bad decisions
Corpus Callosum
Function: facilitate communication b/w hemispheres, eye movement, sensory and arousal
Dysfunction: incomplete or no dev leads to difficulty of understanding (ex. sarcasm)
7 Rules of Brain Plasticity
1. Brain must be alert and engaged to change
2. Positive reinforcement strengthens the connections b/w neurons
3. neurons that fire together wire together
4. Repetition in incremental steps is key to make lasting change; initial change is temporary
5. Memory is crucial for learning and can be improved
6. Motivation is key - right stress, challenging but not too much
7. Brain Plasticity can be positive or negative
Neurotransmitters
6
Acetylcholine
memory
Dopamine
memory, movement, learning, emotions, focus to eliminate distractions (attention)
Serotonin
sleep/wake cycle, mood and arousal, no production - depression
Norepinephrine
alertness and arousal
GABA (gamma aminbutynic acid)
inhibitory neuron
more?
Glutamate
memory, too much - headaches
Neuron
nerve cell, basic building block of nervous sys
Dendrite
neurons bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impluses
Axon
neurons extension that passes messages to glands, muscles or neurons
Myelin Sheath
protects axon of neuron
Threshold
level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Synapse
connection b/w axon tip and dendrite or cell body of receiving neuron
Neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that cross b/w neurons
Central Nervous Sys
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous Sys
sensory and motor neurons that connect central nervous sys to body
Sensory Neurons
neurons that carry incoming info from receptors to brain and spinal cord
Motor Neurons
neurons that carry outgoing info from brain to muscles and glands
Sympathetic Nervous System
arouses the body, mobilizing energy in stressful situation
Parasympathetic Nervous System
calms the body, conserves energy
Brain Stem
core of brain, oldest part, responsible for automatic survival functions
Limbic System
neural sys associated w/ emotions and drives
Broca's Area
controls language expression; speech
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception; language comprehension