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Chapter 13 environmental
atmosphere and climate change
Terms in this set (52)
long term prevailing weather conditions at a particular place
what factors determine climate?
latitude, global air circulation pattern, oceanic circulation patterns, topography, solar activity, volcanic activity
most important factor in determining climate?
distance from the equator
distance from the equator measured in degrees north or south of the equator
how does latitude influence climate?
bc the amount of solar energy an area receives is dependent on latitude
describe the temperature in areas near the equator
high year round, especially in areas close to sea-level
describe latitude in northern and southern regions
sunlight hits earth at an oblique angle and spreads over a larger surface area than it does the equator
how much daylight for a temperature 45 degrees north and south latitude
16 hours of daylight in the summer 8 hours in the winter
describe sunlight in poles
the sun sets for only a few hours each day in summer and rises for only a few hours in the winter
why does cold air sink?
because it is denser than warmer air
describe warm air in the global air circulation process
warm air rises, it expands and cools as it rises
true of false: warm air can hold more water vapor that cold air
how does rain, snow of fog form?
when warm air cools, the water vapor it contains may condense into liquid water
what warms the ground?
describe the process of global air circulation
three belts of prevailing winds occur in each hemisphere. the warming and cooling of air produces belts every 30 degrees of latitude.
what does the global air circulation pattern determine?
earth's participation pattern
why can't cool air over the equator sink?
because hot air is rising below the cool air-as a result the warm less dense air at the equator forms an area of lower pressure
what direction does air descending 3o degrees north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude go
moves toward the equator and the poles
what direction does air descending 60 degrees north latitude and 60 degrees south latitude go
this air collides with air with cold air traveling back from the poles
what direction does air descending 60 degrees north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude go
small amount of air returns back to the circulation pattern however most of its air is uplifted to the poles
winds that blow predominantly in one direction
where do prevailing winds blow
right in the northern hemisphere
where are prevailing winds produced
between 30 and 60 north and south latitude
what causes the movement of surface ocean currents
winds and the rotations of the earth
el nino? why is it bad?
refers to the conditions where the waters near the equator in the pacific ocean are warmer than normal.. you want cooler water that sinks so nutrients can get everywhere...the warm air from the water hits the air which hits the mountains causes temp to get cooler cause bad rain
the water in the pacific ocean is cooler than normal
describe the effect of the rain shadow
warm air in the pacific ocean blows east, hits the mountains, and rises. as the air rises it cools, which causes it to rain on the western side of the mountains, but the time air reaches the eastern side of the mountains its dry OVERALL CAUSES FLOODING
what happens in solar maximum
sun emits an increased amount of ultra violent radiation
how do seasons form?
seasons are the result from the tilt of the earth's axel
an area in the stratosphere where ozone is highly concentrated
what does the ozone layer do?
absorbs most of the UV light from the sun
group of chemical compounds used in refrigerators, air conditioners, foam packaging, and aerosol sprays that may enter the atmosphere and destroy ozone
the ozone hole
a thinning of stratospheric ozone that occurs over the poles during the spring
strong winds circulating over antarctica
polar stratospheric acid
when temperatures fall below about -80 c, high altitude could made of water and nitric acid form
why is UV light damaging to living things
it damages DNA-causes more skin cancer
what is phytoplankton? why kills them?
microscopic organism that live near the surface of the ocean and basic food source in aquatic ecosystem...killed by high levels of UV light
how can UV light damage plants?
how can UV light damage aquatic animals?
disruption of food chain, genetic mutations
agreement to take action against ozone depletion
how is the earth like greenhouse glass?
solar radiation enters the atmosphere in high energy wave-lengths of light...this light causes energy..some of which escapes into space and the rest is absorbed by gases in the troposphere that warms the air
gases that do absorb an infared radiation from the sun
shows you the lay of the land
why was CFCS a miracle chemical
they didn't react to anything, and they were cheap
how do you measure CO2?
the levels of CO2 in the air vary with the seasons- more plants use co2 for photosynthesis in summer so summer ha less levels of c02
what environmental problems can come from rising sea levels
flooding, ruin the economy
co2 levels in the last 50 years? why?
have increased by 20%. more fossil fuels are being burned
what does an increase in greenhouse result to...
an increase in global temperature
the gradual increase in the earth's temperature
what causes the increase in temperature?
the increase in greenhouse gases
an attempt to create a global treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems
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