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Social Psychology Chapters 1-3
Terms in this set (74)
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
an integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviors
Social Psychology's Big Ideas
1. we construct our social reality
Role of Human Values
The object of social psychological analysis.
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
Socially shared beliefs - widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of our world.
The Hidden Values of Psychological Concepts
Seep into psychological advice. Permeate popular psychology books that offer guidance on living and loving. Values are hidden within our cultural definitions of mental health, our psychological advice for living, our concepts, and our psychological labels.
Hindsight Bias (is Social Psychology Just Common Sense)
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. I knew it all along.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory.
Correlational vs. Experimental Research
Corr = can study variables that can't be manipulated (smoking) and points to relationships. Exper = can determine causation.
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable.
The Third Variable Program
A variable that is extraneous to the two variables being studied.
Random Sample vs Random Assignment
Have participants but do a random selecting who gets treatment and who does not.
Representativeness of Samples
Extent to which the characteristics of the sample accurately reflect the characteristics of the population.
The way in which a question or an issue is posed; it can influence peoples' decisions and expressed opinions.
All Elements of an Experiment
Control: One or more independent variable manipulated while trying to hold everything else constant. Random assignment: creates equivalent groups, helps us infer cause and effect, helps us generalize to a population.
Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations.
Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants.
A trick; an attempt to make someone believe something that is not true.
Any aspects of a study that communicate to the participants how the experimenter wants them to behave.
A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail.
A verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study.
Overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders.
Illusion of Transparency
The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others.
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self relevant information.
The aspect of the self-concept that includes images of the selves that you hope, fear, or expect to become in the future.
The finding that information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply, and hence remembered better, than other information.
Evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others.
The Looking-Glass Self
Designed by Cooley, refers to the way a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others through a three-step process: We imagine how our personality and appearance will look to other people. We imagine how other people judge the appearance and personality that we think we present.
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Geert Hofstede found cultures can vary along 4 main value dimensions.
Independent vs. Interdependent Self
Focuses on ME; achieve "true" self-expression, egotistic; unchanged across all situation.
A set of beliefs about oneself.
The Planning Fallacy
People often underestimate how much time or money required to complete a project.
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of our emotional reactions to future negative events.
The tendency to underestimate our capacity to be resilient in responding to difficult life events, which leads us to overestimate the extent to which life's difficulties will reduce our personal well-being.
Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
Self-Esteem and Its Dark Side
People with low self-esteem often have problems in life. They make less money, abuse drugs, and are more likely to be depressed. High self-esteem fosters initiative, resilience, and pleasant feelings. Teen males who engage in sexual activity at an "inappropriately young age tend to have higher than average self esteem. Can be especially problematic if it crosses over into narcissism or having an inflated sense of self.
Extreme self-love or self-admiration.
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
Locus of Control
A belief about the amount of control a person has over situations in their life.
A condition that occurs after a period of negative consequences where the person begins to believe they have no control.
Self-Serving Bias and Self-Serving Attributions
Making yourself look good with the use of external factor.
A phenomenon in which people see themselves as more likely than other people to experience good events, and less likely than other people to experience bad events.
False Consensus and False Uniqueness Effects
The tendency to overestimate the commonality of ones' opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors and then tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or successful behaviors.
Group Serving Bias
Explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).
The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves.
The act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals.
A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus.
Social Perception and Interpretation
Process of gathering and remembering information about others and making inferences based on that information.
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
While tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent.
Automatic vs. Controlled Processing
Mindless, as if programmed like a computer vs. mindful, requiring attention and effort.
Tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions.
A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common.
Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been.
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
Illusion of Control
Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable than they are.
Regression Towards Average
The statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one's average.
Moods and Judgments
Moods color our interpretations of current experiences and affect our judgments.
Mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source.
Dispositional vs. Situational Attribution
Attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits vs. Attributing behavior to the environment.
Spontaneous Trait Inference
An effortless, automatic inference of a trait after exposure to someone's behavior.
Kelley's Attribution Theory
Proposed that individuals make attributions based on information gathered in the form of three informational cues.
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dis-positional influences upon others' behavior. (Also called correspondence bias because we so often see behavior as corresponding to a disposition.)
Causes of the FAE
Powerful situational determinate's, environment, cultural differences.
A belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.
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