Unitary System
a government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
An alliance of independent states
Federal system
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
Expressed powers
powers specifically granted to the national government
Implied powers
powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
Inherent powers
The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government
Reserved powers
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
Supremacy clause
constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the greatest law of the land
dual federalism
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
Nullification crisis
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
sixteenth amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax.
seventeenth amendment
allowed americans to vote directly for U.S senators
cooperative federalism
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
great depresion
started after the crash of the stock market. the period started in the 1929 - 1940. unemployment skyrocketed and many poeple lost there jobs and homes.
Concurrent powers
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
Grants in aid
money given by the national government to the states
Categorized grants in aid
money given by the national government to the states with strings attached
Devolution revolution
The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states.
New federalism
system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states
Block grants
Money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington
Unfunded mandates
Programs that the federal government requires states to implement without federal funding.
Unfunded mandates reform act of 1995
• Requires CBO to analyze impact of unfunded mandates on states.
• Requires separate congressional vote on bills that impose unfunded mandates.
Contract with America
In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limits for members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut.
Federal paper 10
James Madison
Factions = interest groups and political parties
Controll it's effects by republic rather than democracy, liberty is to factions as what air is to fire
Federalist paper 51
James Madison
Get people to adopt constitution
Checks and balances is to limit power to protect the people
Legislature predominate men are not angels
Ideal society chose by vote