18 terms

Adaptations - Aquatic Plants and Animals

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Adaptations
are special features in plants and animals that help them survive in the habitat they live. Every species has its own survival trick.
Adaptations in aquatic plants
a) they are called hydrophytes, they either float or live under water
b) they have specialised roots and hollow stems
c) some have large flat, floating leaves, a waxy coating on their lower surface
d) stomata present on the upper surface
e) hydrilla has thin, narrow ribbon like leaves
Aquatic plants have specialised roots
the specialised roots help the aquatic plants either to stay afloat or hold it in place. These roots also help the plant take in oxygen
Aquatic plants have hollow stems
the hollow stems with air sacs help the plant to stay afloat.
Water lily and lotus have large, flat leaves with waxy coating on the underside
Large flat leaves help in keeping the plant afloat and waxy coating makes the leaves water proof
Stomata are present on the upper surfaces in aquatic plants
stomata on the upper surface helps the plant absorb oxygen from the atmosphere, these stomata are always open as the plant does not need to retain water.
Hydrilla has thin ribbon like leaves
the thin ribbon like leaves of hydrilla allows the plant to move easy under water.
Adaptations in aquatic animals
a) streamlined bodies to help easy movement
b) gills to help breathe under water
c) fins and tail help in swimming
d) air bladders to help them float
e) flippers to steer and move around
f) blowhole to expel air (help in breathing)
g) webbed feet to help in swimming
h) moist skin to respire in water
Fishes .
have streamlined bodies to help them move easily through the water, they have gills to help them breathe under water.
Adaptations of terrestrial animals
1. live on land
2. sharp teeth, claws and legs to help in running, catching their prey and protecting
3. lungs to breathe
4. well developed senses to search for food and escape from enemies
Adaptations of desert plants
1. xerophytes
2. long roots to penetrate deep into the soil in search of water
3. fleshy stems to store food
4. leaves are reduced to spines to prevent loss of water
5. photosynthesis occurs in stems
6. fewer stomata that open only in the night to reduce water loss
Adaptations of plants in tundra
Trees:
a) are cone shaped to help snow slide off easily.
b) are short and grouped together to adapt to sweeping winds
c) shed their leaves and buds become dormant in cold winter
d) have teh abulity to prepare theie food (photosynthesis) at low temperatures and low intensity light
Animal adaptations in mountain habitats
1. thick fur and long hair to keep warm
2. strong hooves to walk on rocky surface
3. breed and raise their young in short summers
4. hibernation in winter as food is scarce
5. migration of birds
Adaptations of desert animals
1. camel, most common
2. stores water, can drink upto 40 liters at a time
3. hump stores fat, can go without food for days
4. body can tolerate high temperatures
5. leathery soles for walking on soft shifting sand
6. can close nostrils to provide protection during dust storms
7. long thick eye lashes to protect eyes from sand
8.some animals are nocturnal, inactive during the day
9. some animals hibernate till heavy rains
Animal adaptations in tropical rainforests
1. toucan have long beaks to reach for fruit that cannot be reached by other animals
2. monkeys have strong arms and legs to swing from branches
3. monkey also have strong claws to cling to the branches
4. monkey have long tails to coil around the branches when they swing
5. jaguars have spots which make it hard to spot them
Adaptations of animals in tundra
1.penguins stay in groups
2. feather and blubber to protect from extreme cold
Plant adaptations in tropical rainforests
1. leaves have special arrangement - grooves and drip tips for water to drip easily
2. vegetation growing at lower levels have large leave to help absorb as much sunlight
Animal adaptations in grasslands
1. fast runners as there is no place to hide
2. lions light brown in colour to camouflage, hard to spot
3. strong claws withdrawn inside toes to move and stalk prey without making a sound
3. eyes in front of their faces to help judge the location of the prey
4. deer has strong teeth to chew plants, runs fast to escape predators, long ears, eyes on either side to spot predators easily