INTE 130

RAM stands for random access memory, a form of memory that holds its contents even if the current is turned off or disrupted.
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Terms in this set (76)
When an organization hires another firm in another country to perform a specific function on its behalf, it is known as offshoring.TrueThe diffusion of innovation theory states that adoption of any innovation happens all at once for all members of the targeted population.FalseSuppose you wish to run two different operating systems on one computer, you can accomplish it by using _______.virtualization software_____ encompasses all the activities required to get the right product into the right consumer's hands in the right quantity at the right time and at the right cost, from acquisition of raw materials through customer delivery.Supply chain managementAn operating system is a set of programs that controls the computer hardware and acts as an interface with applications.TrueSoftwareConsists of computer programs that control the workings of computer hardware Two types of software System software - includes operating system (OS), utilities, and middleware that coordinate the activities and functions of the hardware and other programs Application software - programs that help users solve particular computing problems.System softwareControls the operations of computer hardware Supports the application programs' problem-solving capabilities Types of systems software• Operating systems• Utility programs• MiddlewareKernel• The heart of the operating system • Controls the most critical processes of the OS• Ties all of the OS components together and regulates other programsRescue diskA storage device that contains some or all of the OS and can be used to start the computer if having trouble with the primary hard diskProcessing Tasks: Five basic task management techniquesMultiuser: allows two or more users to run programs at the same time on one computer• Multiprocessing: supports running a program on more than one CPU• Multitasking: allows more than one program to run concurrently• Multithreading: allows different threads of a single program to run concurrently• Real time: responds to input instantlyMiddlewareSoftware that allows different systems to communicate and exchange data Can also be used as an interface between the Internet and private corporate systems.Off-the-shelf softwaresoftware mass-produced by software vendorsCloud service providersCompanies that provide software, data storage, and other services via the InternetValue chaina series (chain) of activities that an organization performs to transform inputs into outputs• The value of the input is increasedSupply chain managementencompasses all the activities required to get the right product into the right consumer's hands in the right quantity at the right time and at the right costLewin's change model consists of a three-stage approach for change1. Unfreezing: preparing for change2. Moving: making the change3. Refreezing: institutionalizingLeavitt's DiamondA theory that proposes that every organizational system is made up of four main components—people, tasks, structure, and technology—with an interaction among the four componentsShadow ITA term used to describe the IS and solutions built and deployed by departments other than the information systems department• Enables business managers to quickly create highly innovative solutions to real business problems and to test these solutions outComputer• Input• Processing • Data storage• Outputinstruction phaseThe instruction phase Step 1: fetch instruction Step 2: decode instruction• The execution phase Step 3: execute instruction Step 4: store resultsCoprocessorSpeeds processing by executing specific types of instructions while the CPU works on another processing activityMassively parallel processing systemsSystems with thousands of such processors• Links hundreds or even thousands of processors to operate at the same timeIntegrated circuit (IC)• A set of electronic circuits on one small piece of semiconductor material• Processors and memory chips are examplesByte (B)eight bits that together represent a single character of dataRandom access memory (RAMis temporary and volatileTypes of RAM• Static random access memory (SRAM) used for high-speed registers and caches• Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) used for main memory• Double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory (DDR SDRAM)Read-only memory (ROM)is nonvolatile Programmable read-only memory (PROM) Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM)Two-stage process of getting data into the computer system1. Data entry: converting human-readable data into a machine-readable form 2. Data input: transferring the machine- readable data into the systemVirtual server:a method of logically dividing the resources of a single physical server to create multiple logical serversBlade servea server that houses many individual computer motherboardsInformationOne of an organization's most valuable resourcesDataraw factsInformation systemCollect (input) • Process • Store • Disseminate data and information • Provides a feedback mechanism to monitor and control its operation to make sure it continues to meet its goals and objectivescomputer-based information system (CBIS)a single set of hardware, software, databases, networks, people, and procedures3 types of information systems• Personal IS - includes information systems that improve the productivity of individual users • Group IS -includes information systems that improve communications and support collaboration among members of a workgroup • Enterprise IS - includes information systems that organizations use to define structured interactions among their own employees and/or external customers, suppliers, government agencies, etc...HardwareConsists of computer equipment used to perform input, processing, storage, and output activitiesSoftwareSystem software - oversee basic computer operations such as start-up, controls access to system resources, and manages memory and files • Application software - allows you to accomplish specific tasks, including editing text documents, creating graphs, and playing gamesIntranetEnable communication, collaboration, search functions, and information sharing between member of an organization using a Web browserExtranetA network based on Web technologies that allows selected outsiders to access authorized resources of a company's intranetERP system benefits:• Provide a global view of operational/planning data • Lower the cost of doing business • Ensure compliance • Automate core business operations • Improve customer service • Reduce time to market by sharing evolving product dataNet neutralityThe principle that Internet service providers (ISPs) should be required to treat all Internet traffic running over their networks the sameNetwork topologyThe shape or structure of a network, including the arrangement of the communications links and hardware devices on the network • Three most common network topologies • Star network• Bus network• Mesh networkpersonal area network (PANsupports the interconnection of information technology close to one personmetropolitan area network (MAN)connects users and their devices in an area that spans a campus or citywide area network (WAN)connects large geographic regions• WANs consist of:• Computer equipment owned by the user• Data communications equipment and telecommunications links provided by various carriers and service providers• Communications may involve transborder data flowCommunications Media• Guided (wired) transmission media: signals are guided along with a solid medium • Wireless: the signal is broadcast over airwaves as a form of electromagnetic radiationMicrowave Transmissionhigh-frequency (300 MHz-300 GHz) signal sent through the airNetwork operating system (NOS)• Systems software that controls the computer systems and devices on a network • Linux, UNIX, Windows Server, and Mac OS X are common NOSsSoftware-Defined Networking (SDNAllows network administrators to have programmable central control of the network via a controller without requiring physical access to all the network devicesIP addresa 64-bit number that identifies a computer on the InternetUniform Resource Locator (URL)a Web address that specifies the exact location of a Web page using letters and words that map to an IP address and a host locationInternet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)is responsible for managing IP addresses and Internet domain namesExtensible Markup Language (XML)a markup language designed to transport and store data on the WebCascading Style Sheets (CSS: a file or portion of an HTML file that defines the visual appearance of content in a Web pageAmazon Web Services (AWS)• Basic infrastructure that Amazon employs to make the contents of its online catalog available to other Web sites or software applicationsWeb 2.0the Web as a computing platform that supports software applications and the sharing of information among usersTunnelingthe process by which VPNs transfer information by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the InternetCloud computing:a computing environment in which software and storage are provided as an Internet service and accessed with a Web browser Advantages to businesses: • Businesses can save on system design, installation, and maintenance • Increased efficiency and reduce the costs of new product and service launches • Employees can access corporate systems from any Internet-connected computer. 3 types • Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)• Software as a service (SaaS)• Platform as a Service (PaaS)Private cloud environment• A single tenant cloud • Organization often implement due to concerns that their data will not be secure in a public cloud • Can be divided into two types:- On-premise private cloud- Service provider managed private cloudHybrid cloud computing• Composed of both private and public clouds integrated through networking• Organizations typically use the public cloud to run applications with less sensitive security requirements• Runs more critical applications on the private portion of the hybrid cloudAutonomic computing• The ability of IT system to manage themselves and adapt to changes in the computing environment, business policies, and operating objectives • The goal of autonomic computing: • To create complex systems that run themselves, while keeping the system's complexity invisible to the end user • Addresses four key functions: • Self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, and self-protectingB2C e-commerceCustomers deal directly with an organization and avoid intermediaries; this is called disintermediationC2C e-commerceInvolves electronic transactions between consumers are facilitated by a third partyRetargetingused by advertisers to recapture those shoppers by using targeted and personalized ads to direct shoppers back to a retailer's siteFive core tasks that must be supported by e-commerce software• Catalog management• Product configuration• Shopping cart facilities• E-commerce transaction processing• Web traffic data analysisTransport Layer Security (TLSis a communications protocol used to secure sensitive data during e-commerce