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Articular Cartilage

Layer of Cartilage that Covers the Ends of Bones which Form Joint

Costal Cartilage

Connects Ribs to the Sternum

Respiratory Cartilage

Forms Larynx, & Other Cartilages that line the Respiratory Passages

Nasal Cartilage

Forms External Nose

Elastic Cartilage

Forms External Ear, and Epiglottis


Forms Intervertebral Discs & Meniscus

Axial Skeleton

Forms Axis of the body, Including the Skull, Vertebral Column and Rib Cage. Function: Protection

Appendicular Skeleton

Forms the Bones of the Upper and Lower Limbs and the Girdles that Connect them to the Axial Skeleton. Function:Movement

Long Bones

Greater in Length Than in Width, Always has a Shaft with Two Ends

EX: Humerus, Femur, Radius, Ulna, Fibula, Tibia

Short Bones

Equal Length adn Width, Cube-Shaped

EX: Bones in Wrists & Ankles

Sesamoid Bones- Short Bone

Shaped like a Sesame Seed

EX: Patella

Flat Bone

Thin, Flattened Bones, Often Slightly Curved

EX: Sternum, Ribs, Cranial Bones

Irregular Bones

Bones that Do Not Fall Into the Other Classes

EX: Vertebrae, Sphenoid, Ethmoid


From Structural Framework of the Body


Protects Internal Organs From Injury


Skeletal Muscles Attach to Bones adn Pull on Bones to Create Movement

Mineral Storage

Stores Minerals and Can Release Them Into Blood When Needed

Blood Cell Formation

Red Bone Marrow

Fat Storage

Yellow Bone Marrow- Stores Adipose Tissue


Sticks Out , Helps to Form Joints or Serve as an Attachment for Muscles and Ligaments


Large Rounded Projection, Usually Rough


Very LArge PRocess Found Only on the Femur


Sharp, Thin, Usuallly Pointed Projection


Any Projection that is Usually Long


Narrow Ridge of Bone


Narrow Ridge of Bone, Smaller than a Crest


Rounded Area on the End of a Bone


Smooth, Flat Surface Where Two Bones Meet


Rounded Projection Where Two Bones Meet


Raised Area Above a Condyle


Wide Bar-Like on a Bone


Narrow Slit-Like Opening


Round or Oval Opening


Canal-Like Passageway


Cavity Within a Bone that is Filled with Air


Shallow Depression in a Bone


Shaft of Bone, Made Mostly of Compact Bone, Contains a Central Medullary Cavity

Meduallary Cavity

Runs through Middle of the Diaphysis, Contains Yellow Bone Marrow


Two Ends of the Bone, Made of Spongy Bone with a thin Layer of Compact Bone on the Outside


Location of the Epophyseal Plate
Thin Layer of Hyaline Cartilage Found Between Diaphysis and Epiphysis
Allows the Bone to Grow in Length

Epiphyseal Plate

Growth Plate

After Growth, The Cartilage Disappears, Covered in Bone and Now Called the Epiphyseal Line

Epiphyseal Line

What the Epiphyseal Plate is Called after the Cartilage Dissapears and is Covered in Bone

Periosteum Membrane

Tough Membrane Made of Dense Irregular Connective Tissue, Covers the Outside of Bones

Endosteum Membrane

Thin Membrane that Lines the Medullary Cavity

Osteogenic Cells

(Stem Cells) Only Bone Cells that Can Divide, Reproduce and as they Develope they Become Osteoblasts


(Immature Cells) Bone Building Cells, Secret the Matrix & Trigger Calcification


(Mature Cells) Main Cells Found in Bone Tissue, Helps Maintain the Matrix


Release Enzymes that Break Down Matrix- Resorption


Process where Enzymes are Released to Break Down the Bone Matrix

Compact Bone

Contains Few Spaces, Froms External Layer of All Bones & Made of Osteons

Functions: Provides Protection & Support, Helps to Resist Stress


(Compact Bone) (Haversian System) Cicular Units Tightly Packed Togehter

Haversian Canal

(Compact Bone) Central Canal, Runs Through the Middle of an Osteon- Containing Blood Vessels and Nerves


(Compact Bone) Circular Rings of Calcified Matrix


(Compact Bone) Spaces Containing Osteocytes


(Compact & Spongy Bone) Tiny Canals that Connect Osteocytes to Each Other and to the Central Canal

Spongy Bone

Contains Many Spaces, Makes Up Most of Short, Flat, and Irregular Bones

Function: Stores Bone Marrow, Lighter than Compact Bone- Reducing Weight


(Spongy Bone) Lamellae that Are Arranged in Thin Columns


(Spongy Bone) Spaces Filled With Osteocytes

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