community: chapter 26, 27, 28, 29

Katie, a 2-year-old child, is brought to the doctor's office after 2 days of vomiting and diarrhea. Upon completion of the medical history, the mother tells the nurse that several of the other children at the daycare who played with the same toys as Katie have the same symptoms. The mode of transmission for the pathogen more likely was:
A. vector.
B. direct.
C. indirect.
D. airborne
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Katie, a 2-year-old child, is brought to the doctor's office after 2 days of vomiting and diarrhea. Upon completion of the medical history, the mother tells the nurse that several of the other children at the daycare who played with the same toys as Katie have the same symptoms. The mode of transmission for the pathogen more likely was:
A. vector.
B. direct.
C. indirect.
D. airborne
Four-month-old Lucy is in for immunizations at the local health department. The Vaccine Information Sheet is given to Lucy's mother, and informed consent is obtained. However, the mother then states, "Lucy did have a temperature around 99.1 degrees the night of her last immunizations." After this statement, the nurse should
A. consult the child's pediatrician.
B. delay the immunizations.
C. do not give the immunizations because of the contraindication.
D. give the immunizations.
D. give the immunizations.
A low-grade fever is not a contraindication to immunizations. The nurse should give the immunizations. It is not necessary to contact the child's pediatrician. Vaccination should be postponed in cases of moderate or severe febrile illness to avoid any confusion between a vaccine side effect and an unknown underlying cause.
Which statement regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is correct?
A. The rate of STDs is decreasing because of effective medication therapies.
B. Women are less likely to use protection methods against STDs.
C. Half of the STD rate in the United States falls within the 15 to 24 age range.
D. Treatment for STDs in women is usually ineffective.
B. Secondary prevention
Secondary prevention includes the investigation of contacts to sexually transmitted disease cases. Secondary prevention includes activities to ensure early detection of infection and effective treatment of persons who are infected. Not only does this prevent progression of the infectious disease, but it also prevents transmission of the pathogen to others. Primary prevention of communicable diseases involves measures to prevent transmission of an infectious agent and to prevent pathology in the person exposed to an infection. Tertiary prevention includes activities involved in caring for persons with an infectious disease to ensure that they are cured or that their quality of life is maintained.
Which statement indicates that further teaching is needed for a patient involved in family planning?
A. "I can't get human papilloma virus (HPV) from my boyfriend because we're not having intercourse."
B. "I need to use condoms to prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases."
C. "Even though I have no signs or symptoms, I still may have Chlamydia."
D. "I can give my unborn baby warts during childbirth."
Seven cases of hepatitis A are diagnosed in a community over a period of 2 weeks. An investigation results in a determination that all of the infected individuals ate at a local restaurant. Which statement explains the possible connection between hepatitis A and a restaurant?
A. The route of transmission for hepatitis A is fecal-oral.
B. A food worker likely coughed on the customers.
C. A food worker may have a bleeding wound.
D. Hepatitis A is transmitted where people congregate.
A. Inefficient storage
B. An intramuscular vaccine injection given subcutaneously
D. Light-sensitive vaccines exposed to light
E. Seroconversion
Primary vaccine failure is the failure of a vaccine to stimulate any immune response. It can be caused by improper storage that renders the vaccines ineffective, an improper administration route, or light-sensitive vaccines exposed to light. Additionally, some immunized persons never seroconvert, either because of failure of their own immune system or for some other unknown reason. Secondary vaccine failure is the waning of immunity after an initial immune response.