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43 terms

Nervous System I

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brain
portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
cerebrum
largest portion of the brain; it is divided into right and left halves known as cerebral hemispheres that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones they underlie
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
frontal lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
parietal lobe
portion posterior to frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental functions
thalamus
two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
gyri
ring or circle; convolutions of the cerebral hemispheres
sulci
ditch, shallow grooves that separate gyri
fissure
splitting crack, deep grooves in the brain
cerebellum
portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
brainstem
region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature, there are three levels, mescencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata
ventricles
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid
plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
meninges
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
peripheral nervous system
nerves that branch from the CNS, including nerves of the brain and spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
aphasia
condition without speech, impairment due to localized brain injury that affects understanding, retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language
dysphasia
difficulty speaking
coma
general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assessment in the Glasgow coma scale
delirium
state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function, there are many causes, including fever, shock, or drug overdose
dementia
impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, confusion
neuralgia
pain along the course of a nerve
paralysis
temporary or permanent loss of motor control
sciatica
pain that follows the pathway of a sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
seizure
sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses
syncope
fainting
Alzheimer disease
disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability and death
cerebral palsy
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination
cerebrovascular accident
damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease
transient ischemic attack
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit- often precedes CVA
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
epilepsy
disorder affecting the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures
Huntington disease
hereditary disease of the central nervous system
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
multiple sclerosis
disease of the CNS characterized by the demyelination of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurological dysfunction followed by recovery/remission
narcolepsy
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis, and dreams intruding while awake
Parkinson disease
condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem resulting in a decrease of dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter that is necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor rigidity of muscles, and slow movements, usually occurring later in life
plegia
paralysis
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring